THE HOME ADMINISTRATION OF MEDICINES.

Some Clear Facts.—-To the careful reader of the foregoing pages, three important facts must be clear: (first) that very many of the ailments of life may be entirely avoided without the use of medicine; (second) that very many important things may be done for the relief and cure of disease by home treatment while waiting for a doctor; (third) that in a very large majority of cases a doctor, will not be needed at all if the instructions given in this volume are faithfully and intelligently carried out.

Home Medicine.—In the home administration of medicine there are three essentials, viz.: promptness, accuracy, a proper judgment of symptoms and a correct fitting of the dose to the needs of the patient. No remedy should be given unless there is a distinct indication for its use. In order to facilitate prompt action and insure accuracy, we give here a list of medicines which should be kept on hand by every family, formulas for prescriptions for all the more common ailments, with directions for use, and a short treatise on symptoms.

Use of This Department.—This department is intended to supplement the preceding sections, and in connection with the hygienic and general treatment elsewhere set forth, it will render every possessor of this modern family work measurably independent of doctors, and will save nine-tenths of the doctors' bills. At the same time it must be borne in mind that the services of a competent physician are sometimes indispensable; that our best reliance is upon hygienic prevention; that it is highly dangerous for non-professionals to attempt to use any other than simple remedies, and that, on general principles, the less medicine taken the better for the patient.

SYMPTOMS AND INDICATIONS OF DISEASE.

In this chapter we give only an outline of the more distinct and prominent general symptoms of disease, as shown by the tongue, pulse, temperature, and so forth. No man is infallible when it comes to a diagnosis. The most learned physicians, who have had years of study and experience, often find themselves puzzled to interpret the existence of certain symptoms and to decide the nature of the disease before them. A general knowledge of symptoms, however, is useful to everybody, and this we give here. The special symptoms of each individual disease will be found in previous pages, under appropriate headings.

The Tongue.—If bright red on edges and end a stomach difficulty is indicated. If, in addition, it is dry and parched, the condition is serious.

A red "strawberry" tongue indicates scarlet fever. If simply red, measles and inflammation of stomach and bowels.

A pale tongue indicates debility, and if impressions from the teeth are shown, great prostration is indicated.

A thick coating on tongue indicates severe disease. A thin coating indicates a less severe trouble.

A furred tongue indicates disease of liver and stomach, fever and indigestion.

A thick, brown or black coating on the tongue, with cracks and fissures, is seen in typhoid and other low fevers.

Difficulty in protruding the tongue and trembling of that member are unfavorable indications.

Rapid cleaning of the tongue and cleaning in spots, are not indications of recovery, and are unfavorable symptoms.

The Pulse.—A normal pulse, as felt at the wrist, near the base of the thumb, is full, elastic and regular; the average normal rate of pulsations is 70 beats per minute in male adults, 75 in females; from 75 to 90 in youthful persons, from 90 to 100 in childhood, and from 100 to 120 in infancy. The pulse rate in old age is from 80 to 85 per minute. Sudden fright, exertion, excitement or emotion will quicken the pulse. But, if no disease exists, it will soon regain its accustomed rate. The recumbent posture causes a lowering of the pulse of about eight or more beats per minute.

A full and frequent pulse, say from 100 to 110 per minute, indicates fever.

A bounding pulse, 110 to 125 per minute, indicates high fever and inflammation. If home treatment fails to reduce this pulse with reasonable rapidity, call a physician at once.

A soft, frequent pulse, say 100 to 120 per minute, indicates advanced continued fever, with debility.

A wiry, frequent pulse, hard and not easily compressed, indicates fever with inflammation, and shows that the disease is of a serious character.

A weak, intermitting pulse, or a thin, thread-like pulse, with or without short intermissions of rest, indicates extreme prostration preceding death, or may occur as a result of hemorrhage or during a fainting fit. In such cases active stimulants must be promptly and energetically used. An intermitting pulse occurs in certain forms of heart disease, when the general health seems good.

Temperature.—One of the most needful articles for the sick room is the "clinical thermometer," such as is now used by all progressive physicians. It consists of a glass tube, with a bulb filled with quicksilver on one end—very similar to the ordinary thermometer tube, and is inexpensive. The use of the clinical thermometer represents the most useful discovery in medical science since the time of the great Harvey. In order to ascertain the temperature of the blood, place the bulb of the thermometer in the mouth or under the arms. The temperature of a patient should be taken as regularly as the pulse, three or four times a day, at least, and a regular daily record of both pulse and temperature is of the greatest importance and assistance to the nurse or doctor.

Normal Temperature.—The normal blood heat of adults is 98-1/2 degrees Fahrenheit. This degree of heat is quite steadily maintained by grown people in fair health. The temperature normally is one degree higher under the tongue than under the arm. It is highest upon awakening in the morning; lowest at midnight. A rise of one degree in temperature usually marks an increase of the pulse from six to ten beats per minute.

Temperature of Children.—In children the temperature is normally one to two degrees higher than in adults. Children and infants lose their normal heat much more easily and rapidly than adults, and the excessive mortality during the first year of infancy may be largely ascribed to the neglect of parents and nurses to keep up the normal temperature of the infants under their charge. It is an established fact that neglect to use the clinical thermometer and to provide proper clothing to guard against the sudden changes in blood heat causes the death of thousands of infants annually. Be sure to have a reliable clinical thermometer in your home medicine chest.

High Temperature.—A heat of 100 degrees to 102 degrees indicates slight fever, 104 degrees indicates high fever, 106 degrees means great danger, and 107 degrees to 108 degrees usually indicates a fatal termination. Aconite and sweet spirits of nitre, internally, reduce fever. Mustard plasters, stimulating liniments and alcohol, applied externally, tend to decrease the temperature.

Low Temperature.—A temperature (in adults) below 96 degrees indicates a condition of collapse, and if below 92 degrees fatal results are almost inevitable. In cases of paralysis, the affected part is colder than the rest of the body. Active stimulation with brandy, etc., chafing the limbs and dry heat are useful in restoring warmth.

Temperature in Sickness.—The pulse does not always indicate the degree of heat or fever. A high temperature (102 degrees to 105 degrees), with a slow pulse, indicates disease of the brain or spine. In small-pox the temperature will average 104 degrees, and at the crisis of the fever 106 degrees. In measles the average temperature in favorable cases is 102 degrees to 103 degrees; in typhoid fever the usual temperature is 103 degrees to 104 degrees, and if it rises to 106 degrees or 107 degrees it is generally fatal. In fevers a sudden fall indicates a crisis, and if the fall is of several degrees great danger is to be apprehended. In the application of cold water to allay fevers, be careful not to reduce the temperature too rapidly. (See Scarlet fever.) If the temperature of a patient (adult) rises to 102 degrees or 103 degrees and continues there (particularly if the respiration exceeds 20 breaths per minute and the pulsation is much above 100 per minute), call a physician without delay.

Respiration.—In health the average adult breathes from 17 to 20 times a minute.

        Two months to two years............. 35 per minute
        Two to six years.................... 23  "    "
        Six to twelve years................. 20  "    "
        Twelve to fifteen years............. 18  "    "
        Fifteen to twenty-one years... 16 to 18  "    "

Respiration in the adult female is usually a trifle faster than in the male, especially during pregnancy. The respirations are regular, and involve the muscles of both chest and abdomen.

Diseases Indicated by Muscle Movements.—When the chest muscles alone are used, inflammation of the bowels is indicated. When the abdominal muscles are chiefly used, some difficulty in the chest—possibly pleurisy—is indicated.

When respiration is attended by a sharp, cutting pain or "catch" in side of chest, pleurisy is indicated; but the trouble may be neuralgia or rheumatism of the muscles.

Difficult Breathing.—Difficulty in breathing may arise from the mechanical obstruction of pneumonia, asthma, croup, bronchitis, dropsy, and so forth, or may be owing to great debility, nervous prostration, bad air, certain forms of heart disease, and so forth.

A heavy, semi-snoring respiration occurs in apoplexy, opium poisoning, fracture of skull and drunkenness.

Pain.—Pain is not always at the seat of the disease which causes it. In ovarian diseases it is often in the limbs, and in diseases of the womb it is often located in the top of the head or shoulders; in diseases of the liver, pain is felt under the shoulder-blade; in diseases of the hip, the pain appears at the knee; in neuralgia, the pain is darting, cutting, shooting and occasionally dull and hard to locate; in rheumatism it is intense and tearing; in pleurisy it is acute, with a "catch;" in pneumonia it is aching and heavy; in erysipelas it is burning; in dysentery it is griping. When an abscess is forming the pain is throbbing; in cancer it is cutting and pricking.

Pain Symptoms of Diseases.—When pain affects a certain side of the head, or a certain limited area of surface, it is generally neuralgia. Heavy, dull pain in lower part of the head, and chills running up and down the spine, are early symptoms of typhoid fever. Pain in the lower spinal region is a symptom of small-pox, if the intensity of the pain is not affected by bending or moving the part; if increased thereby, lumbago or rheumatism is indicated.

Vomiting.—This indicates the presence of improper or undigested matter in the stomach; when this is removed, the vomiting should be checked—not before, as a rule. Vomiting may also be caused by inflammation of stomach, deranged liver, pregnancy, etc. Vomiting blood from the stomach indicates cancer, or severe ulceration; it may result from an injury.

Purging.—Generally speaking, the appearance of diarrhoea indicates that the bowels are trying to rid themselves of some irritating substance. Nature should be assisted, therefore, by a gentle laxative, and after the offending matter is removed the diarrhoea will either cease of itself, or will have to be checked by medication. This should be done gradually.

Expectoration.—In pneumonia the expectoration is rusty looking— later it becomes purplish; in catarrh it is mucus; in consumption it consists of mucous clots streaked with blood, frothy mucus, and in later stages a purulent, and often very offensive and slimy phlegm.

Urine.—Scanty urine, or complete suppression of urine, may be caused by disease of the bladder or kidneys, or stone in bladder, and if long continued, is a very dangerous symptom. Frequent desire to pass water occurs in diabetes, and the flow is profuse. Hysteria, inflammation of the bladder and kidneys, and stone in the bladder are accompanied by frequent desire to urinate, with scanty discharges.

The Skin.—The skin is yellow in jaundice, yellow fever and bilious attacks; purplish in low, continued fevers; blue in bad cases of cholera, collapse, and so forth; flushed in congestion of the brain and most fevers; pale in fainting fits or anemia. The bright red, hectic flush on upper part of cheeks indicates consumption. Moisture of the skin denotes health. During fever the skin is hot and dry; it is a favorable sign when pulse and temperature are reduced and skin becomes moist.

The Skin Signs of Diseases.—Hot and cold alternately in the entire skin or a part of it indicates nervous depression.

Peculiarly thin and easily raised from the subcutaneous tissue in consumption and wasting diseases.

Pallor is due to defective filling of the capillaries, due to indigestion, anemia. Perspiration is sour in rheumatism, also in diseases attendant on mal-assimilation. An excessive perspiration of any kind may be accompanied by small blisters on the skin (sudamina).

Profuse drenching from sweat indicates great debility or exhaustion, as in lung-consumption.

A rigor or chill indicates nervous depression, and either foreshadows a fever or formation of an abscess. Rigor, with "goose-skin," denotes malaria.

Distention of the Abdomen.—-This occurs in colic, in which case kneading or pressing with the hands occasions no pain; in inflammation of the bowels, peritonitis and mesenteric disease, in which cases the mere touch of the hand is painful; also in dropsy and enlargement of the liver. In the latter case there is not much pain, as a rule, but a feeling of great discomfort.

Pain in the Chest.—This may indicate some congestion of the lungs or pleura, or maybe neuralgia or rheumatism of the external muscles. If directly under the breast bone it may be heartburn, caused by dyspepsia. If the cause is neuralgia, the pain is generally located on one side, and may extend around to the back. Many people suppose themselves to be far gone with consumption when their whole trouble is due to neuralgia of the muscles. The pain in such cases sometimes resembles very closely the "catch" of pleurisy, but is without the feverish symptoms that attend pleurisy.

Unfavorable Indications.—In cases of protracted disease, picking at the bed clothes is a sign of approaching death. In low fevers, such as typhoid, the accumulation of mucus, called sordes, on the teeth and lips is a very unfavorable symptom. Low, incoherent mumbling, with prostration, is a very unfavorable sign, frequently seen in prolonged cases of low fevers.

THE WEIGHT OF THE BODY.

The average weight of the body at birth is about seven and one-half pounds. We meet with cases frequently over twelve pounds and as low as two pounds in living children. But when the average male completes his twenty-fifth year of his age growth has reached its maximum, but not weight. The general weight consistent with good health and stature should be as follows:

                                           Weight Increased
                      Mean Weight,           7 per cent.
      Stature.            Pounds.              Pounds.
      5 ft. 1 in............ 120 ................ 128
      5  "  2  "............ 126 ................ 135
      5  "  3  "............ 133 ................ 142
      5  "  4  "............ 139 ................ 149
      5  "  5  "............ 142 ................ 152
      5  "  6  "............ 145 ................ 155
      5  "  7  "............ 148 ................ 158
      5  "  8  "............ 155 ................ 166
      5  "  9  "............ 162 ................ 173
      5  "  10 "............ 169 ................ 181
      5  "  11 "............ 174 ................ 186
      6  " ---  ............ 178 ................ 190

Effects of Weight.—If greater than the allowed 7 per cent., it affects the vital capacity, and respiration becomes diminished.

Clothes average about one-eighteenth of the weight of the body in autumn and early spring. Loss of weight is indicative of phthisis, bronchitis, nervous dyspepsia and other wasting diseases.

HOME REMEDIES, PRESCRIPTIONS AND RECIPES.

HEADACHE.

This is generally a symptom of some other disorder, and can be relieved only by curing the primary trouble. There are five distinct kinds of headache, which may be described as follows:

Sick Headache.—This is caused by some derangement of the stomach and liver and is apt to occur more or less regularly at intervals of two or four weeks. It is a most distressing form of the malady. The pain is often confined to the temples, or is most severe there; occasionally the back of the head seems most affected. There is really no trouble in the head; it is all in the digestive tract. The following method of treatment will usually cure:

Treatment.—Soak the feet in hot water containing a handful of either mustard or salt; at the same time give an emetic, such as two teaspoonfuls of wine of ipecac; or an infusion of lobelia (made by steeping two teaspoonfuls of the powdered leaves for twenty minutes in a half-pint of boiling water). Before taking, this emetic, it is well to drink a half-pint or pint of some warm tea, like sage or pennyroyal. When free vomiting has occurred, give patient a little gruel and let him rest in bed for two or three hours. Then give an active cathartic.

Auxiliary Treatment.—Keep the bowels open by giving one or two of these pills every night for several days. Bathing the whole body with weak saleratus water often affords relief, in conjunction with this treatment; also applications of cold water to the head when the heat is intense.

Nervous Headache.—This form of headache denotes a weak, debilitated condition of the nervous system, caused by long-continued illness, loss of blood, unwonted mental excitement, etc. There is more or less stupidity and confusion of ideas, sometimes dimness of vision, and a dull pain in the head.

Treatment.—1. The treatment is directed to toning up the system. Have the following prescription prepared by an apothecary:

      Extract of valerian ............................. 15 grains
      Sulphate quinine................................. 10 grains
      Extract hyoscyamus............................... 15 grains
      Cayenne pepper.................................... 5 grains
  Make into 15 pills and take one pill three times a day.

2. In addition to this, it is advisable to get:

      Tincture of blood-root.............................. 1 ounce
      Muriated tincture of iron........................... 1 ounce
    Mix. Take ten drops in a gill of water three times a day.  This
  adds  tone and strength to the blood.

Rheumatic and Sympathetic Headache.—In cases of fever of any kind the heated blood passing through the brain gives rise to pains in the head that may be relieved somewhat by the application of cold water or cracked ice, but cannot be cured without removing the primary trouble. Disease of the kidneys gives rise to headache, caused by insufficient elimination of the uric acid; women often suffer from headache during pregnancy.

Treatment.—These forms of the malady can only be relieved by cooling the head, as above directed. When a person is suffering from rheumatism, it sometimes seems as if the pain jumps from the affected part to the head and back again at intervals. In such cases the employment of remedies for the original trouble is required.

Chronic Headache.—Sometimes there appears a chronic form of headache, originating, perhaps, in some severe spell of sickness and persisting in spite of all remedies. This form is likely to affect some one part of the head, and whilst it may vary in intensity, is seldom entirely absent.

Treatment.—The treatment consists of laxative medicines to keep the bowels always free, but without violent purging. Keep the feet warm and the circulation equalized. Diet must be plain and nourishing. A certain form of chronic headache sometimes accompanies catarrh, and is relieved only by curing the catarrh. As a good general rule—keep the feet warm, the head cool, the skin clean and the bowels open.

Plethoric Headache.—This type of headache most affects persons of full habit, and is caused by too great flow of blood to the brain. It can easily be recognized; stooping down and then raising the head gives a sense of fullness and pain; suddenly jarring or shaking the head aggravates the pain; blowing or straining, or pressure on the neck gives rise to pain, with more or less giddiness. Sometimes the excess of blood in the brain indicates an over-supply all through the body; in other cases it is caused by a derangement of the circulation, other parts of the body suffering from an insufficient amount of blood. In the latter case the extremities will be cold, while the head is flushed and hot, with severe throbbing sensations.

Treatment.—In such cases the feet and legs must be soaked in hot mustard water, with a sprinkling of cayenne pepper, and thoroughly rubbed with a coarse towel. Give an active hydragogue cathartic (see pill recommended under Pleurisy), repeat every three day, if necessary, until complete relief is obtained.

Diet.—Diet should be light and unstimulating—fruits, oatmeal porridge, etc.

COLD IN THE HEAD—NASAL CATARRH.

This common complaint will frequently run its course and disappear in four or five days, but may be cut short by care and simple remedies.

Treatment.—In the first place take a saline purgative, such as a dose of Epsom salts—or a seidlitz powder. At bedtime soak the feet in hot mustard water and take ten grains of Dover's powder. Cover up warm in bed and "sweat it out." The use of quinine—say one two-grain pill every three hours—is also useful, but not always essential.

COMMON COUGH—BRONCHIAL CATARRH.

This form of a cold may originate in the throat and chest, or may be caused by the spreading downward of unchecked nasal catarrh.

Treatment.—1. Treatment in first stages is similar to that given for nasal catarrh (preceding) or for bronchitis, with a saline purgative. If the cough becomes troublesome use:

          Muriate of ammonia ............................ 1  drachm
          Fluid extract of licorice ..................... 4  drachms
          Syrup of wild cherry bark ..................... 1  ounce
          Water ......................................... 1-1/2 ounces
      Dose: A teaspoonful every two hours, according to severity of symptoms.

2. If the cough still continues after three or four days, make a cough mixture composed of:

          Syrup of squills ................................ 6 drachma
          Syrup of wild cherry ............................ 6 drachms
          Acetate of morphia .............................. 1 grain
          Cyanide of potassium ............................ 1 grain
      This should be compounded by an apothecary and thoroughly mixed.  
  Dose for adult, one teaspoonful every six hours.  This mixture is 
  very effective, but must be used with caution, as it contains 
  ingredients which are poisonous in overdoses.

CHRONIC CATARRH.

This results from neglected or repeated attacks of the acute form, or follows measles, scarlet fever, and so forth. There is a constant offensive discharge from the nose and nasal passages, pain in the eyes and head, sneezing, loss of appetite, and so forth.

Treatment.—A snuff composed of:

        Bloodroot ...................................... 2   ounces
        Bayberry root .................................. 1-1/2 ounces
        Peruvian bark .................................. 2   ounces
        Borax, pulverized .............................. 1/2 ounce

finely pulverized and mixed, should be kept on hand and constantly snuffed into the nostrils. The bowels must be kept open by taking occasional simple purgatives. Strength should be kept up by the use of tonic pills as follows:

        Sulphate quinine .................................. 1 grain
        Citrate iron ...................................... 2 grains
        Strychnine .......................................1-60 grain
    Have 50 of these pills made by a good apothecary.  For a tonic
  in general debility, nervous exhaustion, etc., take one pill
  after each  meal.

HAY FEVER.

This strange complaint does not yield readily to any treatment, except removal to certain high localities where it is unknown—such as the White or Adirondack Mountains.

Treatment.—The best way to meet its annual onset is to fortify the system with tonics, such as quinine and iron. A pill composed of:

        Quinine .......................................... 2 grains
        Citrate of iron................................... 2 grains
        Strychnine .................................... 1-60 grain

taken after each meal for three weeks preceding the usual time for the appearance of the disorder will sometimes prevent its development.

Accessory Treatment.—There is no certain cure or preventive so far as known. Gargling the throat with a solution of chlorate of potash will generally afford relief from the tickling sensation there, and using powdered quinine as a snuff sometimes proves beneficial.

ASTHMA.

No fixed formula can be always depended upon; for a remedy which will benefit one case will often prove useless in another.

Treatment.—1. One of the best preparations is a powder composed of:

        Sulphur .......................................... 3 ounces
        Pulverized senna ................................. 2 ounces
        Pulverized aniseed ............................... 1 ounce
        Cream tartar ..................................... 2 ounces
    Mix, and take one teaspoonful in syrup or honey at bed-time.  May 
  also be used through the day if symptoms are urgent.

2. Another remedy, highly recommended, is thus prepared:

        Lobelia leaves ................................ 1 teacupful
        Hot water ..................................... 1 pint
    Steep one-half hour.  Take one tablespoonful at a dose every fifteen 
  to thirty minutes until free spitting of mucus is produced.

3. For very urgent cases the following is generally satisfactory, but must be used with caution:

        Ether ...................................... 1/2 teaspoonful
        Laudanum ................................... 30  drops
        Water ...................................... 1   wineglassful

To be taken only once, or at most twice, and if second dose is given, it must not be sooner than six hours after the first dose.

BRONCHITIS.

Symptoms.—Early symptoms are those of an ordinary severe cold. The attack can generally be cut short by taking ten grains of Dover's powder at bedtime with a hot mustard foot bath.

Treatment.—1. Just before retiring take ten grains of quinine— the raw powder is best, but five two-grain sugar-coated pills will do. The following mixture makes an excellent stimulating liniment:

        Oil hemlock ................................ 1 ounce
        Oil origanum ............................... 1/2 ounce
        Gum myrrh .................................. 2 ounces
        Cayenne pepper ............................. 1/2 ounce
        Gum camphor ................................ 1/2 ounce
        Alcohol or whiskey.......................... 1 pint
    Mix, shake well, and apply to chest, rubbing in thoroughly.

2. If the throat is sore use a gargle of chlorite of potash—one teaspoonful to one-half glass of water. If these remedies do not prove effective the case requires medical attendance at once.

HOARSENESS.

Treatment.—In addition to the remedies elsewhere given for coughs and colds, the following is highly recommended for hoarseness:

            Fresh horseradish, grated................... 2  ounces
            Cider vinegar .............................. 1/2 pint
            Strained honey ............................. 1  gill
        Put the horseradish into the vinegar and let it stand twelve to
    fifteen hours; then add the honey and heat it nearly to boiling, but
    do not allow it to reach the boiling point.  Strain and squeeze out
    the liquid and bottle for use.  An adult can take a teaspoonful or
    more, four times a day, or oftener, until relief is obtained.

WHOOPING-COUGH.

Treatment.—1. Keep the bowels open with castor oil, or the following mixture:

            Castor oil .................................... 2 ounces
            Molasses ...................................... 4 ounces
        Mix well and give a tablespoonful once or twice a day.

2. To relieve the paroxysms of coughing have the following prepared by an apothecary:

            Extract belladonna .......................... 10 grains
            Powdered alum ............................... 1 drachm
            Alcohol ..................................... 4 drachms
            Simple syrup ................................ 4 ounces
        Give one teaspoonful of the mixture every four or five hours, or 
    every three hours If the fits of coughing are very severe.

3. Or take:

            Dilute nitric acid........................... 1 drachm
            Water ....................................... 3 ounces
        Sweeten with honey or molasses and give one teaspoonful every
    three to five hours.

4. Very often an emetic is useful, such as:

            Powdered lobelia ............................ 1    teaspoonful
            Powdered bayberry-bark ...................... 1/2  teaspoonful
        Steep thirty minutes in saffron tea; strain and sweeten with
    honey,  and give one to two teaspoonfuls every fifteen minutes
    until  vomiting and relief are obtained.

SORE MOUTH—CANKER.

A disorder very common in infancy and childhood and sometimes affecting adults.

Treatment.—1. To correct the acidity of the stomach, which causes the disorder, give small doses of a few grains of prepared chalk or calcined magnesia dissolved in sweetened water. Wash the mouth frequently with the following excellent gargle:

            Sumach berries ......................... 2 tablespoonfuls
            Sage leaves ............................ 2 tablespoonfuls
            Hyssop leaves .......................... 1 tablespoonful
            Borax, pulverized ...................... 1 teaspoonful

2. Make a very strong tea, with a pint of boiling water, of the first three ingredients; sweeten with syrup or honey, and add the borax; stir well together and use frequently.

3. To cure canker in infants who are still nursing, the mother should chew small pieces of rhubarb root, two or three pieces the size of a pea every day. This will benefit the child through the mother's milk. For grown children and adults the following laxative will probably cause the canker sores to disappear:

            Flowers of sulphur...................... 1 tablespoonful
            Cream tartar............................ 2 teaspoonfuls
        Mix in one-half cupful of syrup and take one teaspoonful three
    or  four times a day

4. In some cases these little sores are very hard to get rid of, and assume a very angry appearance. For this phase of the disorder the following is highly recommended:

            Tincture perchloride of iron ............... 1/2 drachm
            Glycerine .................................. 1/2 drachm
        Mix. Dip a camel's-hair brush into the mixture and lightly touch
    the  ulcers with the point of the brush; after holding it there
    a moment,  rinse out the mouth with tepid water.  This is a
    little painful, but  usually produces a radical cure.

CONSTIPATION.

Treatment.—1. An excellent powder, safe and sure, and which ought to be kept constantly on hand, is the cathartic powder.

            Pulverized jalap............................ 4  ounces
            Pulverized senna............................ 8  ounces
            Pulverized cloves........................... 1  drachm
            Cayenne pepper ............................. 1/2 drachm
        Mix all together and pulverize well.  Dose for an adult: One
    heaping  teaspoonful in a glass of water; spice with nutmeg to
    make it more  palatable, if, desired.  Very good for occasional
    or chronic  constipation.

2. The following is well adapted for frequent or daily use in habitual constipation, but is hardly so active as the preceding powder:

            Powdered senna .............................. 2 ounces
            Powdered licorice ........................... 2 ounces
            Powdered fennel ............................. 1 ounce
            Flowers of sulphur........................... 1 ounce
            White sugar ................................. 6 ounces

        Mix and pulverize well together.  Dose: One teaspoonful in
    one-half  glass of water well stirred up.  For children, reduce
    the dose in  proportion to age.  When there are dropsical or
    congestive symptoms  add a teaspoonful of cream tartar to each
    dose to stimulate the removal of the fluids from the system.

3. Habitual constipation is hard to cure, and calls for strict observance of dietary regulations. Coupled with a proper diet and mode of life, the following mixture will be found highly useful:

            Cayenne pepper ............................. 30 grains
            Cream tartar ............................... 2 grains
            Flowers of sulphur ......................... 4 drachms
            Pulverized charcoal ........................ 2 teaspoonfuls
            Molasses or honey........................... 1 teaspaonful
        Mix. When bowels are tight take one-half teaspoonful on empty   
    stomach once a day, or twice, if the symptoms are urgent.  Another
    good plan is to get a two-ounce bottle of fluid extract of 
    hydrastis, and take from four to six drops in a half-glass of water
    whenever there is any constipation.  This is a most excellent
    remedy, and easily taken.

DYSENTERY.

Treatment.—1. In the acute stage, when there are severe pains in the bowels and frequent stools, give the following:

            Powdered ipecac .................................. 20 grains
            Flaxseed tea ..................................... 1 gill
        If pain is very severe, add to this one grain of powdered opium,
    or fifteen to twenty drops of laudanum.

2. In place of this, syrup of ipecac in teaspoonful doses repeated every hour until three or four doses have been taken will perhaps answer the purpose. Patient must be kept perfectly quiet in bed. The ipecac will induce perspiration, which can be further induced by the application of warm fomentations over the abdomen and hot bricks to the feet.

3. After the acute stage has passed, and not before, give an injection composed of:

            Thin boiled starch .............................. 2 ounces
            Laudanum ....................................... 20 drops

repeating at intervals f six to twelve hours. Care must be taken not to check the discharge too suddenly.

4. Another prescription, good in any stage of the disease, is:

            Tincture rhubarb ............................ 1   ounce
            Laudanum .................................... 4   drachms
            Sugar of lead, pulverized.................... 1/2 drachm
        Mix and shake well so that the sugar of lead will not settle to
    the bottom.  Dose for adult: One teaspoonful every three hours.  If
    the disease does not yield readily and considerable fever develops
    send for a physician.

DIARRHOEA.

Treatment.—1. It is usually best to begin treatment by giving a tablespoonful of castor oil, either with or without ten to twenty drops of laudanum. This aids in cleaning the unhealthy matter out of the intestines, and when this is accomplished, give an astringent and quieting remedy, such as:

            Subnitrate of bismuth ........................ 1 drachm
            Tannic acid .................................. 1 drachm
            Paregoric .................................... 1 ounce
            Aromatic syrup of galls ...................... 2 ounces
        Mix and shake well. Dose: One teaspoonful every two hours.

2. Or take a carminative composed of:

            Laudanum .................................... 1/2 ounce
            Compound spirits of lavender ................ 1/2 ounce
            Spirits of camphor .......................... 1/2 ounce
        Mix. Dose: Ten drops on sugar every hour or two until discharges
    cease.

3. A good blackberry cordial, such as the following, is often found to be a preventive and specific for summer complaint, diarrhoea, etc.:

            Ripe blackberries ........................... 2 quarts
            Sugar, white ................................ 1 pound
            Cloves and allspice ......................1/2 ounce of each
        Boil all together.  When cold, press out and strain the juice
    and  add a pint of good brandy.  This makes a pleasant drink, and
    may be  taken in quantities from a teaspoonful to wineglassful every
    two  to four hours.  Be careful not to take too much astringent
    medicine and thereby check the diarrhoea too suddenly.

COLIC.

Treatment.—1. To relieve the pain give an injection of thin starch containing twenty to thirty drops of laudanum. To relieve the constipation give a seidlitz powder, or a tablespoonful of castor oil, to which may be added a teaspoonful or less of spirits of turpentine. The application of warm fomentations to the abdomen, or a mustard plaster wet with vinegar is also recommended. Soaking the feet in hot water is also of benefit. Colic is a very painful disorder, but seldom or never terminates fatally.

2. One of the best general remedies for colic, diarrhoea, pain in the stomach and bowels is the following cordial:

            Gum myrrh .................................. 4 ounces
            Ground nutmeg .............................. 1/2 ounce
            Cayenne pepper ............................. 1/2 ounce
            Good brandy or whiskey...................... 1  quart
        Pulverize the myrrh, nutmeg and pepper together; put them into a
    two-quart bottle; add the brandy or whiskey and cork tightly.  Let
    it stand ten days or more, shaking frequently, then strain and
    bottle for use.  Dose for an adult: One teaspoonful.  An excellent
    and harmless remedy for colic, pain in the stomach and bowels, and
    very useful in diarrhoea.  This preparation ought to be kept in the
    house constantly.  In using this for colic do not neglect the use of
    a purgative also, such as a dose of castor oil or salts.

CHOLERA MORBIS.

Treatment.—1. To check vomiting and purging the following mixture is excellent:

            Essence peppermint ...................... 1 ounce
            Water ................................... 1 ounce
            Carbonate of potash .................... 20 grains
            Paregoric ............................... 1 teaspoonful
            White sugar or honey .................... 2 teaspoonfuls
        Mix and shake well.  Dose: One teaspoonful every ten to twenty
    minutes, until patient becomes quiet.  If necessary, keep up bodily
    heat by means of hot flannels or bricks to extremities.  Patient
    should rest quietly.

2. Another remedy, highly prized by many, is:

            Common salt .............................8  teaspoonfuls
            Black pepper ............................4  teaspoonfuls
            Cider vinegar ...........................1/2 teacupful
            Warm. water .............................1/2 teacupful
        Mix all together and take the whole dose, a tablespoonful
    at a time. If the first cupful is rejected, take another at
    once.

When stomach is settled take a powder composed of:

            Powdered peppermint leaves ..............1/2 ounce
            Powdered cloves .........................1/2 ounce
            Pulverized rhubarb ......................1   ounce
            Saleratus ...............................1   ounce
        Mix well together.  Dose: One teaspoonful every thirty
    minutes, or less frequently after one or two doses.  Hot
    fomentations applied to the stomach and abdomen are not out of
    place at any stage of cholera morbus.

CHOLERA INFANTUM.

Symptoms.—The first symptoms are heat and pain in the region of the stomach and bowels, hands and feet, followed by vomiting and purging, or both, with griping and severe pains at the pit of the stomach. Evacuations become greenish-yellow and slimy, frequent and painful. Vomit is also greenish and more or less offensive and sour. There is great prostration, with loss of bodily heat and intense thirst; later, a cold perspiration appears, and unless relief is afforded the patient speedily succumbs, or the disease passes into a chronic state.

Causes.—Causes are: unwholesome food, hot weather, bad ventilation, or painful teething.

Treatment.—1. The first step is to remove the cause—a nursing babe may suffer from an improper diet on the part of the mother. Give the patient pure air and sunlight—a trip to the country or on the water may be all sufficient. If the trouble comes from teething, have the gums lanced and cared for.

2. The treatment should generally be very simple. When the symptoms first appear apply a spice plaster, or light mustard plaster, or flannels wrung out of hot water and spirits, over the whole abdomen; give a few teaspoonfuls of mint tea, and keep the child quiet as possible.

3. The following mixture has been used with great success, in early stages especially:

            Prepared chalk ..........................10  grains
            Subnitrate of bismuth ...................10 grains
            Paregoric ...............................1-1/2 teaspoonfuls
            Syrup of ginger .........................5  teaspoonfuls
            Gum arable mucilage .....................5  teaspoonfuls
        Mix. Dose for child one year old, one-half teaspoonful
    two to six times a day, usually not oftener than once in five
    or six hours. Vomiting may be relieved by giving small pieces
    of ice, it the child is old enough to swallow them.  This
    treatment will often bring relief, but if it does not, give a
    teaspoonful of flaxseed tea or slippery elm tea, with (for a
    child four to six weeks old) one drop of laudanum, once in two
    or three hours.

4. If child is two or three months old, give two drops of laudanum; if six months old, give three drops; if a year or more give from four to eight drops, according to age. If the stomach will not retain this remedy apply it as an injection, using a tablespoonful of thin boiled starch, blood heat, to double the amount of laudanum prescribed above, that is, two drops for a child of thirty days, four drops for a child of two or three months, and so forth.

5. As a general rule, we may say, give as little medicine as possible, and if the simple remedies first named do not give prompt relief, as they very often will, with proper care, call a physician in preference to trying to handle the case in its severe forms.

SUMMER COMPLAINT.

Diet.—Pay strict attention to diet, which must consist of boiled rice, flour boiled in milk, parched corn, ground and boiled in sweet milk, no meats or fruits, except rice, fresh blackberries.

Treatment.—Give a small dose of castor oil, say one to two teaspoonfuls, followed, after ten to twelve hours by mild astringents and carminatives, such as those recommended for diarrhoea, graduating the dose according to age of patient. Do this early and no serious trouble need be feared.

DYSPEPSIA.

Treatment.—-1. This curse is generally self-inflicted, and in most cases a strict observance of proper diet will afford relief, and, in time, effect a cure. In many cases a simple abstinence from one meal every day or two, for a while, will give the stomach a needed rest and relieve the patient. A plain but nutritious diet must be rigidly adhered to. One of the distressing symptoms of dyspepsia is "heartburn," which may be relieved by using the methods pointed out under that head.

2. Whilst the best results are attained by hygiene, the following anti-dyspeptic pills often produce a favorable effect in hastening a cure:

            Pulverized rhubarb .......................1 drachm
            Hydrastis ...............................20 grains
            Pulverized ipecac .......................30 grains
            Oil cloves ..............................10 drops
        Make into sixty pills with extract of gentian, and take one
    or two pills daily.

3. Another formula which is much recommended by some physicians, is;

            Pulverized rhubarb ......................1   drachm
            Subnitrate of bismuth ...................2   drachms
            Cayenne pepper ..........................1/2 drachm
            Pulverized aloes ........................1/2 drachm
            Pulverized ipecac .......................15  grains
        Mahe into sixty pills with gum arabic, and take one pill
    before each meal.

Accessory Treatment.—1. For a tonic cordial, take a gallon jug or bottle, fill it half full of wild cherries, and then fill it up with first-class rye whiskey or Jamaica rum. Let it stand for a week or more. Then take two tablespoonfuls twice a day. Do not use any more than the system requires as a tonic, and discontinue it as early as possible, so that there may be no development of an undue appetite for spirituous liquors.

2. Probably the best of all digestive tonics is the following:

            Tincture of leptandrin ..................1 ounce
            Tincture of hydrastis ...................1 ounce
            Tincture of Colombo .....................1 ounce
            Wine of pepsin ..........................1 ounce
        Mix. Dose: Two teaspoonfuls after each meal.

SOUR STOMACH—HEARTBURN.

Symptoms.—This common and distressing complaint results simply from undue acidity of the stomach caused by errors in diet or by dyspepsia. It produces a burning sensation in the stomach and under the breast-bone, often accompanied by nausea.

Treatment.—Take the following mixture, after meals, when the trouble occurs:

            Baking soda .............................1/2 teaspoonful
            Water ...................................1/2 cupful

and avoid pickles, preserves, candies, sweet cakes and all sweetmeats.

CHILLS AND FEVER—FEVER AND AGUE—INTERMITTENT FEVER.

Treatment.—1. Upon the first indications of a chill, the following powder will be found useful:

            Sulphate of quinine .....................30 grains
            Prussian blue ............................1 drachm
            Extract podophyllin, pulverized .........30 grains
            Cayenne pepper, pulverized ...............1 drachm
            Charcoal, pulverized .....................1 drachm
        Mix thoroughly and divide into twenty powders. Dose for an
    adult is two powders, taken every two hours, until chill has
    ceased and the hot stage begins.

2. After first powder is taken, patient may be placed in a warm bath and given hot chamomile or mint tea, with a copious sprinkling of cayenne pepper. In place of the warm bath, patient may be covered up warmly in bed and dry heat applied (by means of hot bricks, and so forth) along the spine to the extremities over the pit of the stomach, and so forth.

3. In the third stage (sweating) patient should be gently stimulated, if great weakness exists, with a little whiskey toddy, warm brandy or some similar drink. Between the ague fits, which may occur every other day, or once in three days, once in four days, or irregularly, give:

            Sulphate quinine ........................30    grains
            Sulphuric acid ..........................30    drops
            Pure water ..............................1-1/2 ounces
        Mix in a bottle and shake well. Dose for an adult: One
    teaspoonful every two hours, or every hour, if necessary.

4. A good preventive of chills and fever is the following:

            Good rye whiskey ........................4 ounces
            Pulverized rhubarb ......................1 drachm
            Pulverized Peruvian bark ................1 ounce
        Mix in a large bottle, and let it stand for some days. 
    Take a good tablespoonful of the decoction three times a day
    during the continuance of aguish symptoms.

5. The following has been highly recommended by some practitioners:

            Nitric acid .............................5  drops
            Sweetened water .........................1/2 wineglassful
        Take this mixture every four hours for two days.  It has
    been known to have most favorable results.

CONGESTIVE CHILLS.

Symptoms.—A very severe form of chills and fever is in some eases marked by what are called "congestive chills," in which there is extreme weakness and distress, with clammy skin and every indication of approaching death.

Treatment.—The treatment is the same as for other chills of this character, but must be more energetic. Doses of quinine may be increased to ten or fifteen grains, given once or twice within an hour, with the administration of brandy and cayenne pepper to stimulate the vital forces. This form of ague is seldom seen, except in neglected cases, where the system is broken down and full of malarial taint.

SCARLET FEVER.

Treatment.—1. The first step is to reduce the fever, and for this purpose nothing is better than the following fever mixture for all forms of fever, and febrile symptoms attending small-pox and all eruptive diseases:

            Sweet spirits of nitre ..................1-1/2 ounces
            Laudanum ................................2     drachms
            Bromide ot potassa ......................4     drachms
            Syrup ot ginger .........................4     ounces
            Distilled water .........................6     ounces
        Dose for adult: One tablespoonful every two to four hours,
    according to the severity of the fever.  Dose for a child of
    ten years, two teaspoonfuls; for a child o five years, one
    teaspoonful.

2. When there is soreness of throat, apply a strip of fat salt pork or inside rind of fat bacon, sprinkled with salt and powdered camphor. A flannel cloth soaked in vinegar placed around the throat and covered with a dry cloth also gives relief; change every hour or two. The cold pack and frequent bathing with cold water are highly recommended, but must be applied with care.

3. It is claimed that the following treatment will nearly always terminate a fever if done promptly: Submerge the patient in water at a temperature of from 102 degrees to 105 degrees; very gradually add cold water until the temperature of the bath is reduced to 60 degrees, or even 50 degrees, and the temperature of the patient is brought down nearly to normal heat, 98-1/2 degrees. This must be done in a warm room, free from draughts, or else the danger of taking cold is very great. Scarlet fever is a very dangerous disease at best, and a physician should always be called as soon as the disease manifests itself. In the meantime it is always safe to give the fever mixture in the doses specified.

BRAIN FEVER—MENINGITIS.

Treatment.—Treatment is directed to diverting the blood from the head, and keeping the bowels open. Soak the feet in hot water containing a tablespoonful of saleratus and apply either crushed or shaved ice to the head constantly, by means of ice-bags. Give a purgative, such as two blue-mass pills of five grains each, or the following:

            Manna ...................................1 ounce
            Senna ...................................1 ounce
            Epsom salts .............................2 ounces
            Powdered ginger .........................1 drachm
            Water ...................................1 pint
        Steep thirty minutes, then bottle.  Dose: Two
    tablespoonfuls three times a day or oftener if necessary to
    produce five or six motions of bowels every twenty-four hours.
    Call a physician at the earliest possible moment.

BILIOUS FEVER.

Treatment.—1. The first step is to relieve the trouble in the stomach and liver by means of an active purgative. Get a few blue-mass pills of three grains each, and take two or three at night, followed by a bottle of citrate of magnesia in the morning. This may be repeated the next day, if the purging from first dose does not seem to afford perfect relief from bilious symptoms.

2. If patient objects to calomel take instead the excellent antibilious pills made as follows:

            Leptandrin ..............................20 grains
            Sanguinarian .............................5 grains
            Podophyllin ..............................5 grains
            Ipecac ..................................10 grains
            Cayenne pepper ..........................10 grains
        Make into forty pills, with extract of dandelion.  Keep
    these pills always on hand.  They are unequaled as a cathartic
    in bilious fever or in any case when the liver is sluggish. 
    Can be compounded at any drug store.

which will probably answer the purpose just as well. For an active purge take three or four pills.

3. Another good antibilious physic is the cathartic powder to be found under article on Constipation. After the fever has subsided give quinine in two-grain doses every hour or two, according to severity of attack. This mode of treatment will frequently cure in a very few days if begun early enough. If neglected, this type of fever will frequently run into a form of typhoid, which is very dangerous and hard to cure.

PNEUMONIA—LUNG FEVER—INFLAMMATION OF THE LUNGS.

Treatment.—1. Upon the appearance of the first symptoms the patient should be put to bed in a reasonably warm room, well ventilated, but free from draughts. Put a large mustard plaster, or flannels wrung out of hot water, over the seat of pain in the lungs; give copious draughts of hot composition tea, made from the following:

            Powdered bayberry .......................8  ounces
            Pulverized ginger .......................4  ounces
            Pulverized cloves .......................1/2 ounce
            Cayenne pepper ..........................1/2 ounce
        Pulverize together and mix well.  One teaspoonful of the
    powder to one pint of boiling water makes a tea of proper
    strength.  Drink freely; useful to produce a perspiration in
    coughs, colds, catarrh, pneumonia, pleurisy and all cases where
    sweating is desired.

Apply hot bricks or flat-irons to feet and limbs, and thus induce a profuse perspiration, continued several hours; give quinine in two-grain capsules, one every two hours, or more frequently if patient is accustomed to its use.

2. If cough is very tight or troublesome give an expectorant, such as the following mixture:

            Chloride of ammonia .....................1   drachm
            Brown mixture ...........................1   ounce
            Syrup of squills ........................1/2 ounce
            Jamaica rum .............................4   ounces
        Mix. Dose: One teaspoonful every two hours.

3. If strength fails, as is nearly always the case, dose the patient well with milk punches to stimulate the vital forces and aid expectoration.

Apply this treatment early and energetically, and if it does not give prompt relief, the case is too serious to be handled without good medical advice.

PLEURISY.

Treatment.—1. In ordinary cases the treatment is simple. The patient should be put to bed in a warm room. Apply flannels wrung out of hot water or mustard plasters over the seat of pain in the side. If necessary, to relieve the pain, a few drops of laudanum may be sprinkled on the plaster before applying. Give plenty of hot composition tea (see article on Pneumonia) or tea made from pleurisy root; apply hot bricks to the extremities, and get up a good perspiration. A good dose of salts is generally needed and should be given, say a tablespoonful.

2. If there seems to be much effusion of water into the pleural cavity, give two of the hydragogue cathartic pills made as follows:

            Comp. extract colocynth .................40 grains
            Gamboge .................................15 grains
            Podophyllin .............................10 grains
            Oil of caraway ..........................10 drops
        Make into twenty pills with gum arable mucilage.  Dose for
    adult: Two or sometimes three pills.

This treatment, faithfully administered, will cure ninety-nine cases out of a hundred, if applied early.

INFLAMMATION OF THE BOWELS.

Symptoms.—This rather uncommon disease is characterized by fever, constipation and pain in bowels, most intense in region of navel and right flank. Unlike colic, the pain is increased by pressure from the outside.

Treatment.—1. Patient should be kept perfectly quiet in bed. Swallowing cracked ice will subdue nausea, and chewing small pieces of rhubarb-root will often supply the mild laxative needed. Apply warm fomentations to abdomen, such as large flaxseed poultices, plentifully sprinkled with laudanum. Flannels wrung out of hot water and spirits are also useful.

2. After relief has been secured, it is well to give once or twice daily a mild aperient composed of

            Castor oil ..............................3 ounces
            Olive oil ...............................2 ounces
            Oil turpentine ..........................2 teaspoonfuls
        Dose for adult: One tablespoonful.

INFLAMMATION OF THE BRAIN.

Practically this disease is identical with brain fever or meningitis, which see.

INFLAMMATION OF THE STOMACH—GASTRITIS.

Treatment.—The best that can be done by home treatment is to depend chiefly upon external applications: mustard plasters to the stomach, light poultices of flaxseed meal sprinkled with laudanum, and so forth. The stomach must be allowed to rest absolutely, and it is well to have patient take nourishment by means of enemas, such as beef-tea injections. Internal medicines should be given only under a physician's directions in this case.

GASTRIC FEVER.

This is essentially similar to a mild form of bilious fever.

ERYSIPELAS.

Treatment.—1. The best wash for erysipelas of the face or head is:

            Goulard's extract .......................2 teaspoonfuls
            Distilled water .........................4 tablespoonfuls
            Acetate morphia .........................2 grains
        Mix and apply by laying linen cloths, wet with the mixture,
    over the affected parts.

2. It is said that the following remedy is almost a specific:

            Tincture chloride of iron ...............1 ounce
        Take from ten to fifteen drops in two tablespoonfuls of
    sweetened water every two hours.  Steaming the part in the
    vapor of hot herbs---lobelia, bloodroot, etc.---is recommended
    by some practitioners.  The cranberry poultice, made from
    boiled or raw cranberries, mashed, has also been used with
    success.  It is important to keep up the strength, and quinine
    may be administered in doses of two grains every four hours. 
    Alcoholic stimulants are frequently found indispensable, and
    good champagne, or old rye whiskey, will be found the best for
    the purpose.  Never apply any ointments or greasy substances of
    any kind to the inflamed surface. If this treatment fails to
    give prompt and marked relief a physician should be called at
    once.

SMALL-POX.

Treatment.—Comparatively little medical treatment is required. More depends upon nursing and diet. Fever mixture should be used to allay the fever. The following mixture will be found efficacious:

            Sweet spirits of nitre ..................1-1/2 ounces
            Laudanum ................................2     drachms
            Bromide of potassa ......................4     drachms
            Syrup of ginger .........................4     ounces
            Distilled water .........................6     ounces

        Dose for adult: One tablespoonful every two to four hours,
    according to the severity of the fever.  Dose for a child of
    ten years, two teaspoonfuls; for a child of five years, one
    teaspoonful.

To relieve the itching the following mixture will be found efficacious :

            Solution carbolic acid ..................1/2 drachm
            Pure water ..............................5   ounces

        Apply with sponge or soft rag.  For the ointment nothing is
    better than cosmoline or plain vaseline.  In case tonics are
    needed to support strength, two-grain quinine pills, in doses
    of two pills three times a day, will be found convenient to
    administer.  Brandy and milk-punches may be given in small and
    frequent doses, say from one to two teaspoonfuls every hour, or
    more frequently.  If extreme prostration exists, call a
    physician at once.

MEASLES.

Generally speaking, no active treatment is required. If fever runs high, use fever mixture, as recommended under small-pox. Dose: one teaspoonful for a child from two to six years of age; two teaspoonfuls for a child of eight to twelve years, increasing according to age. Cathartic must be used very carefully, if at all, as diarrhoea frequently occurs, and is apt to be obstinate. Should the bowels become very loose, it is well to check, but not stop, the diarrhoea by the use of

            Aromatic syrup of galls ..................1 ounce
            Laudanum ................................40 drops

        Dose: Half teaspoonful every two or three hours.  Give the
    patient all the cold water he craves, and do not heat the body
    with hot teas, heavy blankets, etc.

MUMPS.

Treatment.—Nothing is needed beyond rest and proper care, except an occasional dose of salts, or, if the pain is very severe, the application of a poultice, made from mullein leaves, with a sprinkling of laudanum. Diet should be looked after.

NERVOUSNESS.

Treatment.—1. General nervous excitability, such as is seen in delicate women, can often be controlled by the use of the following nerve tonic:

            Spirits of camphor ......................1/2 ounce
            Comp. spirits of lavender ...............1/2 ounce
            Tincture valerian .......................1   ounce
            Sulphuric ether .........................1/2 ounce

        Mix. Dose: One or two teaspoonfuls every three hours.

2. When there is extreme nervous debility, with a tendency to fainting fits, the following mixture is very useful:

            Spirits camphor .........................1 ounce
            Aromatic spirits ammonia ................1/2 ounce
            Spirits lavender compound ...............1/2 ounce
            Tincture valerian .......................1  ounce
            Tincture castor .........................1  ounce

        Mix. Dose: From one to three teaspoonfuls at intervals of
    from fifteen minutes to three hours, according to urgency of
    symptoms. This mixture should be kept on hand by all persons
    subject to fainting fits.

PAINFUL MENSES—DYSMENORRHEA.

Treatment 1.—This disorder is hard to cure, but the painfulness of the attacks may be mitigated very much, sometimes, by using the hot hip-bath, or at least soaking the feet in hot mustard water. Hot fomentations should be applied to the abdomen, and copious draughts of hot pennyroyal tea given. Constipation must be carefully guarded against, both during the attack and during the intermediate period. (See "Constipation.")

2. The use of tonic pills is recommended, to be taken three times a day, one pill after each meal. They should be made thus:

            Sulphate quinine ........................1 grain
            Citrate iron ............................2 grains
            Strychnine ..............................1-60 grain

        Have fifty of these pills made by a good apothecary,

Or thus:

            Sulphate quinine ....................... 2 grains
            Iron reduced ........................... 2 grains

        Have twenty-five of these pills made.

FLOODING—MENORRHAGIA.

Treatment.—1. For an astringent, to be taken after the second or third day of the attack—not before:

            Fluid extract viburnum ................. 1/2 ounce
            Gallic acid ............................ 40  grains
            Infusion of matico ..................... 4   ounces

        Mix. Dose: Five teaspoonfuls every three hours, until
    flooding ceases.

2. This may be supplemented by the use of oil of erigeron:

            Oil of erigeron ........................ 1 drachm

        Dose: One drop on lump of sugar every ten to thirty
    minutes, according to urgency of the case; usually this is not
    needed.

3. An infusion of the leaves of erigeron (fleabane), one ounce to pint of water, freely drank, say half a teacupful or more, three or four times a day, will often answer all purposes when used alone.

LEUCORRHEA—"THE WHITES."

Treatment.—In addition to the use of tonics, the following has been highly recommended:

            Tincture of aloes ...................... 2   ounces
            Muriated tincture of iron .............. 1/2 ounce

        Mix in a bottle.  Dose: Thirty-five drops (about one-half
    teaspoonful) in a gill or more of water three times a day.

Auxiliary Treatment.—In addition, use one of the following injections:

            Sugar of lead .......................... 2 ounces
            Sulphate of zinc ....................... 2 ounces

        Mix well together.  Put one-half teaspoonful into a pint of
    hot water, and use as an injection three or tour times daily. 
    Use a full pint every time, as hot as can be borne.  One-half
    teaspoonful of powdered alum to the same quantity of water may
    be used instead, but mixed powder is generally better.

Good results are sometimes obtained by using as an injection an infusion of white oak bark, one tablespoonful to a pint of water.

CONVULSIONS—INFANTILE FITS.

Causes.—Indigestion, worms or the irritation of teething are the usual causes of fits in childhood, or "spasms," as they are called.

Treatment.—1. Place the child in a warm mustard bath, say about two teaspoonfuls of mustard to one bucketful of water, and at the same time apply cold water to the head; this will relax the spasm and allow you to take steps to remove the cause of the trouble. If the child is teething and the gums are hot and swollen they should be lanced and allowed to bleed freely.

2. If indigestion or constipation seems to be the cause, give from fifteen to thirty drops of castor oil, in gruel, and an injection of warm, soapy water. Sometimes a simple emetic should be first given.

3. If you have reason to suspect that the child has worms, proceed as directed in article on worms, which see. To prevent the recurrence of the spasms the bowels must be kept reasonably free by giving small doses of castor-oil daily. The warm bath, with cold water on the head, rarely fails to give instant relief from the severe and threatening symptoms. It should be applied at once, when spasm commences.

4. The following is an excellent remedy for infantile convulsions:

            Chloroform ............................. 1/2   drachm
            Bromide of potash ...................... 1/2   drachm
            Tincture of cardamon ................... 1/2   ounce
            Spearmint water ........................ 2-1/2 ounces

        Shake well and give one-half teaspoonful in water to child
    one year old, smaller children a proportionate dose.

CONVULSIONS—EPILEPTIC.

Causes.—The causes of this strange disease are but imperfectly understood, and no infallible remedy has yet been discovered.

Treatment.—1. Total abstinence from rich and animal food, with hygienic modes of living constitute the best defense of an epileptic patient.

2. When adults are laboring under the paroxysm little in general can be or ought to be done, except bringing the patient into the fresh air, taking off what may be around the neck and baring the chest, together with the more imperative duty of preventing the patient from doing himself any injury. If the paroxysm be prolonged greatly, the application of cold to the head may be of some service. The inhalation of ammonia or chloroform has been found useful.

CROUP.

Treatment.—The main point is to act promptly; give the child a hot mustard bath; give twenty drops of syrup of ipecac every ten minutes until vomiting is induced; if the ipecac does not act promptly give the following:

            Powdered alum .......................... 2 teaspoonfuls
            Molasses ............................... 1 tablespoonful
            Warm water ............................. 1 cupful

        Mix and give a tablespoonful every five minutes; also rub
    chest, neck and back with a good stimulating liniment.

The Liniment.—The following is an excellent one:

            Water of ammonia ....................... 2   drachms
            Chloroform ............................. 2   drachms
            Laudanum ............................... 1/2 ounce
            Spirits of camphor ..................... 1/2 ounce
            Soap liniment .......................... 3   ounces

        Mix.

If above treatment is followed out the much-dreaded "midnight horror" can be treated in most cases without the assistance of a physician. Should the attack, however, prove to be the membranous form, and refuse to yield to above treatment, the family physician should be summoned at once.

DIPHTHERIA.

Diphtheria is both a contagious and infectious disease, and not to be trifled with. Always rely on the advice of a physician, who should be sent for as early as possible. The following remedies will prove helpful in a large number of cases, especially if treatment is begun early:

Treatment.—1. The new serum treatment of diphtheria by hypodermic injections of diphtheria anti-toxine has proved very successful and is a wonderful addition to modern medicine. This treatment is administered only by the physician.

2.—

            Powdered alum .......................... 2 drachms
            Chlorate of potassa .................... 1 ounce
            Permanganate of potassa ............... 30 grains
            Pure water ............................. 1 pint

        Mix and use as a gargle every hour or two.

3. To make lime-water, put a piece of quick-lime, the size of a hickory nut, into an eight-ounce bottle and fill with water; let it stand a short time, until water is thoroughly impregnated with the lime. The best way to apply this is with an "atomizer," a little instrument which acts something like a syringe, but ejects the liquid in the form of a fine spray.

4. The throat may also be treated with tannin and glycerine prepared as follows:

            Tannin ................................. 1 drachm
            Glycerine .............................. 1 ounce

        Heat the glycerine somewhat, so as to thoroughly dissolve
    the tannin, and stir or shake well while dissolving.  Apply to
    sore spots in throat by means of a swab or a throat brush.

Internal Treatment.—For internal treatment use the following most excellent prescription:

            Chlorate of potash ..................... 1     drachm
            Tincture of chloride of iron ........... 1-1/2 drachms
            Syrup of lemon ......................... 1     ounce
            Spirits of mindererus .................. 4     ounces

        Mix. Dose: One teaspoonful every two hours.

If this prescription cannot readily be filled, a fairly good substitute is the tincture of chloride of iron; get about one ounce of this and take ten drops in a wineglassful of water three times a day. This is a valuable tonic, but in addition, if there is much failure of strength, use the following:

            Sulphate quinine (powder) .............. 1 drachm
            Best brandy ............................ 1 pint

        Mix and dissolve.  Dose: Two teaspoonfuls every three hours
    in half a glass of water.

QUINSY SORE THROAT.

Treatment.—The best that can be done is to prevent swelling and suppuration. Use the gargle recommended for diphtheria, and keep hot poultices constantly on throat, under the chin and ears. By this means the disease can generally be cut short, but if it progresses to suppuration the attendance of a physician is required. Poultices made from hops are generally as good as anything; the application of fat pork sprinkled with pepper has also been recommended, but the poultice always gives the best results. The bowels must be kept open, and for this purpose epsom salts are generally used, unless there is a condition of biliousness, in which case the following pills are preferable:

            Leptandrin ............................. 20 grains
            Sanguinarin ............................  5 grains
            Podophyllin ............................  5 grains
            Ipecac ................................. 10 grains
            Cayenne pepper ......................... 10 grains

        Make into forty pills, with extract of dandelion.  Keep
    these pills always on hand. They are unequaled as a cathartic
    in bilious fever, or in any case when the liver is sluggish. 
    Can be compounded at any drug store.

SIMPLE SORE THROAT.

Treatment.—Usually the result of a cold. Upon first appearance, use a gargle of chlorate of potash, or take a pinch of the powdered chlorate of potash and allow it to dissolve slowly in the mouth, laying or inclining the head in such a way that the saliva will trickle over the sore surface. This will usually cure, if begun in time, but if not successful within a day or two make a gargle of

            Powdered alum or borax ................. 1-1/2 teaspoonfuls
            Water .................................. 1     gill

and use every hour or two.

Accessory Treatment.—If there is much debility or loss of strength, tonics should be used, such as tonic pills, as recommended for hay fever, which see, or the tincture of chloride of iron, recommended for diphtheria. Swabbing the throat with the tannin and glycerine mixture is also very efficacious, but the simple chlorate of potash gargle will often end all trouble.

PUTRID SORE THROAT.

Symptoms.—This form of sore throat is accompanied by ulceration more or less severe, and occasionally of a malignant type, resembling diphtheria.

Treatment.—The treatment is much the same as that for diphtheria, with gargles and tonics. The tannin and glycerine mixture often gives relief, and a strip of fat pork, sprinkled with cayenne pepper and applied to the throat, has been used with good results. It is important to keep up the strength with iron and quinine tonics, as recommended for other throat diseases. Like diphtheria, this disease requires prompt and intelligent treatment, and if not speedily subdued by home remedies a good physician is needed at once.

DROPSY.

Treatment.—1. One of the best prescriptions ever formulated for general dropsy is the following:

            Acetate of potash ...................... 1/2 ounce
            Basham's iron mixture .................. 2  ounces
            Spirits mindererus ..................... 2  ounces

        Mix. Dose: One tablespoonful tour times a day.  This will
    seldom fail to afford relief.

2. Hydragogue cathartics are needed, such as the following:

            Powdered jalap ......................... 10 grains
            Cream tartar ........................... 1  teaspoonful
            Sweetened water ........................ 1  wineglassful

        This mixture may be taken once every four hours until
    copious watery discharges are produced.

3. A good diuretic mixture (to produce a profuse flow of urine) is this:

            Infusion of digitalis (foxglove) ....... 2 teaspoonfuls
            Cream tartar ........................... 1 teaspoonful
            Pure water ............................. 1 gill

        It the symptoms are not very urgent, this may take the
    place of the hydragogue cathartics recommended above.

4. For almost any kind of dropsy, a tea made from bruised juniper berries or the tops of broom corn (one ounce to a pint of water), may be used with advantage. Dropsical patients must take as little liquid food as possible.

RHEUMATISM—ACUTE OR INFLAMMATORY.

Treatment.—In addition to external remedies the disease is often controlled within two or three days by the use of the following:

            Salicylate of soda ..................... 2 drachms
            Wine of opium .......................... 1 drachm
            Bicarbonate of potash .................. 2 drachms
            Syrup of lemon ......................... 1 ounce
            Pure water ............................. 3 ounces

        Mix. Dose: One teaspoonful every two hours.

Great care must be observed in watching the patient's temperature, as great danger attends the over-heating of the blood, which is apt to occur in acute rheumatism.

RHEUMATISM—CHRONIC.

Treatment.—Many methods of treatment have met with more or less success, but the following is said to be the most generally satisfactory:

            Tincture gum guaiacum .................. 1 drachm
            Iodide of potassium .................... 1 drachm
            Wine of colchicum ...................... 1 drachm
            Elixir of orange ....................... 2 ounces
            Simple syrup ........................... 2 ounces

        Mix. Dose: Two teaspoonfuls four times a day.

External Treatment.—A good liniment, which must be rubbed persistently and frequently, with considerable friction, on the affected part, is composed of:

            Laudanum ............................... 6 drachms
            Chloroform ............................. 4 drachms
            Oil of red thyme ....................... 2 drachms
            Liquid opodeldoc ....................... 2-1/2 ounces

        Mix and apply several times daily.

RHEUMATISM—-MUSCULAR.

"Stiff neck" and "pain in the chest" are two of the most common forms of this malady.

Treatment.—The use of belladonna plasters is recommended, to be applied over the seat of pain; also the following mixture:

            Wine of colchicum ...................... 1/2 ounce
            Wine of opium .......................... 1   drachm
            Syrup of lemon ......................... 1   ounce
            Distilled water ........................ 2   ounces

        Mix. Dose: One teaspoonful every two hours.  The liniment
    recommended above for chronic rheumatism may also be used with
    advantage.

NEURALGIA.

Treatment.—1. When associated with debility, anemia, or "bloodlessness," as is apt to be the case, iron and quinine tonics are useful, such as tonic pills recommended for sciatica, which see.

2. Another good form of iron is the tincture of chloride of iron, taken in doses of ten drops in a wineglassful of water, three times a day.

External Treatment.—1. In addition to internal treatment, which Is essential, stimulating liniments often do much good in alleviating pain. The following stimulating liniment has been highly recommended:

            Spirits of ammonia (hartshorn) ......... 1 ounce
            Olive (sweet) oil ...................... 3 ounces
            Chloroform ............................. 1 ounce
            Tincture of camphor .................... 1 ounce

        Mix. Apply with hand, rubbing in persistently.

2. In place of this the following, or that recommended for rheumatism, may be used:

            Laudanum ............................... 2   ounces
            Spirits turpentine ..................... 3   ounces
            Olive oil .............................. 2   ounces
            Tincture camphor ....................... 2   ounces
            Spirits ammonia ........................ 1/2 ounce

        Mix. Useful for sprains, swellings, pains in muscles and
    joints etc. Also for neuralgia and rheumatism.  Keep bottle
    well corked.

3. Some practitioners have had great success with an ointment made of

            Extract belladonna ..................... 1/2 ounce
            Plain vaseline ......................... 2   ounces

        Mix. Rub on affected part several times a day.  The
    external applications tend to reduce the pain, while the tonics
    are renewing the strength and "tone" of the nerves.  Belladonna
    plasters are very useful in cases of neuralgia of chest, or
    other parts where the plasters can readily be applied, but the
    tonics must not be neglected.

SCIATICA.

As this is a form of neuralgia, the treatment should be by means of the following:

            Sulphate quinine ....................... 1 grain
            Phosphate iron ......................... 2 grains
            Strychnine ............................. 1-50 grain

        Have fifty of these pills made; take one after each meal. 
    Specially useful in neuralgia and rheumatism, with good
    results.

The use of these tonics will tend toward a cure, but the disease is very obstinate, and strict observance of hygienic precautions is imperative. In this disease, as in lumbago, the use of belladonna plasters, which may be bought at any drug store, often contribute to relieve the intense pain.

External Treatment.—The liniment as prescribed for rheumatism is also useful, and should be faithfully applied; or the liniment and ointment recommended for neuralgia may be employed with good results.

Use of Opiates.—When it is necessary to administer opiates to subdue the intense pain, it should be done under the advice of a physician. In an emergency, a dose of from fifteen to twenty drops of laudanum may be administered, either on lump sugar or in a tablespoonful of water.

RINGWORM.

Treatment.—1. A radical cure may be effected by the use of nitrate of mercury (in the form of citrine ointment) as per following formula:

            Citrine ointment ....................... 1 drachm
            Vaseline or cosmoline .................. 1 ounce

        Mix and thoroughly incorporate.  Wash the affected part
    clean and apply this ointment, on a soft rag, three times a
    day.  This is also a specific for barber's itch, scald-head and
    all other diseases which are due to the presence of vegetable
    parasites.

2. In obstinate cases cures have been effected by painting the affected surface quite freely with tincture of iodine twice every day for two weeks, and then applying an ointment made of

            Corrosive sublimate .................... 2 grains
            Vaseline or cosmoline .................. 1 ounce

        Mix thoroughly.  This must be used with the greatest care.

BARBER'S ITCH.

Treatment—1. In addition to the citrine ointment and vaseline recommended for ringworm, the following will be found excellent for barber'a itch, and an almost infallible cure for common itch:

            Plain vaseline ......................... 4 ounces
            Sulphur ................................ 2 ounces
            Sal ammoniac, powdered ................. 2 drachms

        Mix and apply daily, after cleansing the part thoroughly
    with castile soap-suds.

2. Another good ointment is composed of:

            Plain vaseline ......................... 2   ounces
            Venice turpentine ...................... 1/2 ounce
            Red precipitate ........................ 1/2 ounce

        Apply in same manner.  Great care should be taken not to
    expose affected parts to cold or draughts while ointment is in
    use, especially if the affected surface is large.

SCALD-HEAD—FAVUS.

Treatment.—Cut or shave off the hair; apply a bread-and-water poultice until the crusts are softened and can be removed; then use the following ointment:

            Plain vaseline ......................... 2   ounces
            Sulphur ................................ 1/2 ounce

        Mix thoroughly and apply with the hand, rubbing in well. 
    If necessary, remove the roots of the hair with a pair of
    tweezers; in ordinary cases this is not required. (See also
    "Ringworm.")

SHINGLES—HERPES.

Treatment.—It is well to give a teaspoonful of cream-tartar in sweetened water every night for a few days, and to bathe the whole surface of the body in saleratus water. The burning and itching may be relieved by using the following wash:

            Goulard's extract ...................... 2 teaspoonfuls
            Acetate morphia ........................ 2 grains
            Distilled water ........................ 2 ounces

        Apply by means of soft rags to affected surface, changing
    frequently.

HIVES—NETTLE-RASH.

Causes.—As this disorder is ascribed to indiscretion in diet, the first step is obviously to rid the stomach of the offending matter by means of an emetic, and then to avoid the cause of the disturbance. When the cause is unknown, great relief, and often a cure, will result from the following treatment:

Treatment.—Dust the affected parts freely with fresh rye flour, and at the same time drink copious draughts of rye flour water. Some very stubborn cases have yielded to this remedy.

TETTER—ECZEMA—PSORIASIS.

Treatment.—There are several varieties of this disorder, but a good ointment for almost any form is made as follows:

            Venice turpentine ...................... 1 ounce
            Red precipitate ........................ 3 drachms
            Vaseline, plain ........................ 4 ounces

        Melt the vaseline and turpentine together in a cup and stir
    in the precipitate while cooling.  Mix well.
        Apply a little of this ointment to the affected surface
    twice a day, first cleansing the sore with warm water and a
    little castle soap. Internally, use the following: Fowler's
    solution, five drops on a lump of sugar, three times a day.  It
    is often advisable to use an alterative syrup also, such as
    recommended for scrofula.

FRECKLES.

Treatment.—Freckles are sometimes removable and sometimes not. The following lotions are as good as any:

            Rain water ............................. 8  ounces
            Borax .................................. 1/2 ounce

        Mix and dissolve; wash part twice daily.

            Rose water ............................. 4  ounces
            Alcohol ................................ 1/2 ounce
            Hydrochloric acid ...................... 1/2 drachm

        Mix and apply with sponge or rag three times daily. 
    Painting with tincture of iodine is sometimes effective. 
    Generally speaking, it is best to leave the freckles alone.

SUNBURN.

Anoint the affected surface two or three times daily with plain vaseline or cosmoline, or benzoated zinc ointment.

CHAFING.

Treatment.—Afflicts children and fleshy persons. Usually all that is required is washing well with castile soap and cold water, and anointing with plain vaseline. A solution, to be used twice a day in connection with frequent washing in cold water, is composed of:

            Pure water ............................. 2  gills
            Powdered borax ......................... 1 teaspoonful
            Sulphate of zinc ....................... 1/2 teaspoonful

        Apply by means of a soft rag several times daily.  After
    drying well, dust the parts with wheat flour or cornstarch or
    powdered magnesia.

SCROFULA.

Treatment.—1. Iodide of iron, with quinine and other tonics, constitute the best treatment. Get an ounce of syrup of iodide of iron and take twenty drops in a wineglassful of water three times a day. In addition to this, get about fifty tonic pills, composed of:

            Citrate of iron ........................ 1 grain
            Sulphate quinine ....................... 1 grain
            Arsenic ................................ 1-16 grain

        These may be coated with sugar or gelatine.  Take one pill
    thrice daily.

2. A good alterative syrup can be made as follows:

            Yellow dock root ....................... 1  pound
            Stillingia root ........................ 1  pound
            Dandelion root ......................... 1  pound
            Imported sarsaparilla .................. 1  pound
            Bark of sassafras root ................. 1/2 pound
            Water .................................. 4  gallons

        Cut the roots, etc., up fine and boil slowly in the water
    until reduced to four quarts; then strain, pressing out the
    liquor from the solid matter; add to the liquor five pounds of
    white sugar, stirring in with gentle heat.  Add also about
    eight drachms of iodide of potassa, or at rate of two drachms
    to each quart of syrup. Put in bottles, well corked.  Dose: Two
    tablespoonfuls three times a day.

3. A good wash or lotion for indolent scrofulous sores is:

            Carbolic acid, crystals ................ 30 drops
            Pure water ............................. 1 pint

        Mix and apply with soft rag three or more times daily.

SORE EYES—CONJUNCTIVITIS.

Treatment.—1. In simple cases, where there is heat and pain in the eye, with some redness of lids and white of eye, this lotion is generally effective:

            Borate of soda ......................... 2 grains
            Camphor water .......................... 1 ounce

        Mix. One or two drops in eye four times a day; also,
    saturate a small piece of lint in this mixture and apply it
    over the eye.

2. Another good lotion is composed of:

            Hydrastis (Golden Seal) root ........... 1/2 ounce
            Best green tea ......................... 1/2 ounce
            Sulphate zinc, pulverized .............. 1  drachm

        Steep the root and tea for a few minutes in a pint of
    boiling water; while cooling, add the sulphate of zinc; when
    cold, strain well and bottle.  Use as an eye wash three times a
    day.  In severe cases a poultice is useful, made from
    pulverized slippery elm and warm milk and water.  In most cases
    an active purgative is needed, such as a 5-grain blue pill at
    evening for two or three days, followed each morning by about
    half a bottle of citrate of magnesia or a seidlitz powder.  In
    place of this the anti-bilious pills (see article on Bilious
    Fever) may be used.

All eye-washes must be used with caution, especially those containing belladonna or caustic solutions, or more harm than good may result.

CHILBLAINS—FROSTED FEET.

Treatment.—1. The first treatment for frosted feet, to be applied at once, before the feet are "thawed out," is rubbing with snow and bathing them in ice-cold water. Let the normal blood-heat be restored very gradually, and continue the cold water treatment for some hours. Do not apply external heat of any kind.

2. For chilblains, the best treatment is frequent bathing in cold water and in a strong decoction of white oak bark. Bandaging the parts loosely with flannels saturated with crude petroleum has cured many cases. These are probably the best remedies, although many others have been tried with varying success.

CANCER—CANCEROUS ULCERS.

It is doubtful if true cancer has ever been cured, but there are certain malignant ulcers, cancerous in appearance and malignity, that sometimes yield to the simple remedies here given.

Treatment.—1. One of the best and most available remedies is the cranberry poultice. Mash raw cranberries to a pulp, spread on a cloth to make a thick poultice large enough to cover the entire affected surface, and apply direct to the sore. Change the poultice three times a day. This may add to the soreness at first, but if persisted in, it will generally effect a speedy cure.

2. Raw carrots, grated fine and moistened with water to make a smooth paste, may be used in place of cranberries, but the results are not usually so satisfactory. These remedies are worth trying in all cases of external cancer, and may be depended upon to cure many cases of malignant ulcerous sores.

CARBUNCLES—ANTHRAX.

Treatment.—1. To scatter the swelling and prevent the formation of pus (which may sometimes be done if taken in time), take:

            Spirits of turpentine .................. 4 ounces
            Common salt ............................ 2 tablespoonfuls

        Apply over seat of soreness or swelling, by means of
    several thicknesses of flannels, kept constantly wet with the
    solution.

Take one or two hydragogue cathartic pills, or the following powder, two successive nights:

            Colocynth .............................. 8 grains
            Podophyllin ............................ 2 grains
            Gamboge ................................ 4 grains

        Divide into two powders and take one each night, at
    bedtime, in syrup or ground cloves.

2. If the carbuncle develops, apply bread or flaxseed poultices and keep up the strength with tonics, such as:

            Sulphate quinine ....................... 1    grain
            Phosphate iron ......................... 2    grains
            Strychnine ............................. 1-50 grain

        Have fifty of the pills made.  Take one pill three times a
    day after meals.  If these pills are not available take two
    grains of quinine three times a day, either in powder or the
    gelatine-coated pill.

BOILS—FURUNCLE.

Treatment.—A quick poultice for a boil is made of soap and brown sugar, equal parts, spread on a cloth and faithfully applied. To cleanse the system of the impurities which cause the formation of boils take this powder:

            Flowers of sulphur ..................... 6 tablespoonfuls
            Cream tartar ........................... 3 tablespoonfuls

        Mix. Dose: One teaspoonful, night and morning, in syrup or
    molasses; continue for a week or ten days, but every third day
    omit this and take instead one-half teaspoonful of epsom salts
    in water, night and morning.  Tonics may also be used as in
    "Carbuncle." When the boil has broken and the core is removed,
    dress with any good healing salve or plain vaseline.

JAUNDICE.

Causes.—Jaundice is a symptom rather than a disease. It indicates that there is some obstruction in the bile duct, which may result from a cold, a gall stone, or a thickening of the bile from some other cause. The bile, not being eliminated by the proper process and passed off into the intestines, is absorbed into the vascular system and diffused through the blood.

Symptoms.—This condition is manifested by yellowness of the skin and of the white of the eyes, loss of appetite, disinclination to stir around, sleepiness and sometimes sickness at the stomach. The bowels are constipated, and the excrement is hard and clayey; the urine is high-colored; there is generally a bitter taste in the mouth, and more or less pain in the right side.

Treatment.—1. The treatment is directed to cleaning up the bile duct, and forcing the bile into its proper channel. Probably the best remedy is this: Take a two-grain blue-mass pill twice daily for two or three days in succession—not longer. This is better than taking a larger dose once a day. If relief comes after one or two doses, take no more.

2. As a substitute for this, the following purely vegetable pills can be substituted, and often with equal success:

            Extract taraxacum ...................... 40 grains
            Podophyllin ............................  4 grains
            Leptandrin ............................. 10 grains

        Make into twenty pills.  Dose: One pill four times a day.

BLEEDING FROM THE LUNGS.

Treatment.—1. The most common remedy, and one usually effective, is common salt, which should be eaten freely, a teaspoonful at a time, until relief is obtained. A mixture composed of

            Powdered sugar ......................... 3 ounces
            Powdered rosin ......................... 3 ounces

        Dose: One teaspoonful three times a day.

is also good.

2. In obstinate cases, the patient should be kept perfectly quiet, and this powder given:

            Tannin ................................. 30 grains
            Powdered sugar .........................  1 drachm

        Make ten powders and give one every ten minutes, or give
    one teaspoonful of wine of ergot every ten minutes.

[N. B.—Since spitting blood may be only a symptom of a much more serious trouble, a physician should always be called in when obtainable.]

BLEEDING FROM THE NOSE.

When obstinate, take cobweb or grated salt beef, hard and dry, and push it into the nostril as far as possible. External pressure from thumb and finger, continued fifteen or twenty minutes, will also be of benefit.

Another good method is to apply cold water or ice to forehead, also to back of the neck.

PALPITATION OF THE HEART.

Causes.—This disorder varies from a mere fluttering to the most distressing palpitation, and does not necessarily indicate a diseased condition of the heart itself, as it may proceed from nervous debility, indigestion and dyspepsia, too free indulgence in certain stimulants, severe fright or excitement, and so forth.

Treatment.—1. The first step is to discover where the root of the trouble lies. If it is general or nervous debility, the treatment is by tonics and nervines. If indigestion or dyspepsia causes the trouble, treat the patient for these disorders, as shown elsewhere in this volume. Many such cases are relieved by simply lying flat on the back and slowly taking a few deep breaths.

2. When indigestion or dyspepsia appears to be the exciting cause, a glass of plain soda water, or a drink made from a teaspoonful of baking soda in water, with a little citric acid added, will often give instant relief.

3. When the trouble is due to organic disease of the heart, a cure is probably impossible, but in such cases the following mixture is recommended:

            Tincture of digitalis .................. 1/2 ounce
            Tincture of stramonium ................. 1/2 ounce

        Mix. Dose: Ten drops in water three times a day.  In urgent
    cases the dose may be increased to fifteen or twenty drops. 
    This is a good sedative and tends to relieve the nervous
    excitability of the heart; but it is always risky to continue
    the use of such a powerful medicine as digitalis for any length
    of time, except under a physician's immediate direction.

MILK LEG.

Treatment.—1. Sedatives, fomentations, perfect rest and simple diet is the most rational treatment to be followed for this affection. The fluid in which the fomentation flannels are to be wrung out is made by adding one pound of bicarbonate of soda and one ounce of extract of poppies to one gallon of boiling water. The flannels ought to be changed every thirty minutes and applied over the whole limb, and over the groin and lower part of the abdomen, wherever there is tenderness. The heat and steam from these fomentations are to be retained by means of impermeable cloths.

2. After using this a few days or a week, substitute for it the following stimulating liniment:

            Oil of hemlock ......................... 1   ounce
            Oil of origanum ........................ 1/2 ounce
            Gum myrrh .............................. 2   ounces
            Cayenne pepper ......................... 1/2 ounce
            Gum camphor ............................ 1/2 ounce
            Alcohol ................................ 1   pint

        Mix and dissolve.  Apply with hand, rubbing in gently but
    continuously.

3. The popular cure for milk leg, and that now most in vogue, is mercury in the form of blue ointment. Anoint the affected part freely with the ointment, and use it even to the point of partial salivation, if necessary.

4. After acute symptoms have subsided there is no remedy so beneficial as efficient bandaging, together with use of the tonic pills as prescribed under Carbuncle, which see.

WORMS.

Tape Worm.—Among the many remedies used by the profession, the following have been found useful and harmless to the patient.

1.—

            Asafoetida ............................. 2 ounces
            Garden rue ............................. 1 ounce
            Garlic ................................. 1 ounce
            Rye whiskey ............................ 1 quart

        Bottle and let it stand for about ten days.  Dose: One-half
    wineglassful three times daily, before meals.

2.—

            Spirits of turpentine .................. 1 tablespoonful
            Castor oil ............................. 1 teaspoonful
            Milk ................................... 1 cupful

        Take this dose once a day.  For a child under ten years,
    one-half the above, with or without the castor oil.  This is
    also a good remedy for round or stomach worms.

3. A remedy thought to possess much value is:

            Fresh pumpkin seeds .................... 24 ounces

        Macerate and grind to powder; divide into twelve portions,
    and take one portion three times a day.  The bowels should be
    kept open with castor oil or some similar purgative, and the
    system stimulated by iron and quinine tonics; food should be
    kept from patient as much as possible while using this remedy.

Round Worms.—An excellent remedy for round or stomach worms is the following:

            American wormseed ...................... 1 ounce
            Cassia senna ........................... 1 ounce
            Manna .................................. 1 ounce
            Carolina pink root ..................... 1 ounce
            Boiling water .......................... 1 quart

        Macerate the first four ingredients thoroughly together and
    add the boiling water; let it steep in a closed vessel for an
    hour or more; sugar and milk may be added.  Dose for a child:
    One gill four times daily, on an empty stomach.  Good also for
    pin worms.

Pin Worms.—These may often be destroyed by using the following injection:

            Powdered aloes ......................... 5  grains
            Hot water .............................. 1/2 pint

        Mix and divide into two injections and use at about blood
    heat.

The following has also been used with success:

            Cream tartar ........................... 1/2 tablespoonful
            Sulphur ................................ 1  tablespoonful

        Mix in syrup.  Dose for adult: One teaspoonful night and
    morning; for child under ten years, one-half the amount.

PILES.

Treatment.—1. For external piles this ointment is generally effectual:

            Plain vaseline ......................... 1 ounce
            Extract belladonna ..................... 10 grains
            Tannin ................................. 80 grains
            Powdered opium ......................... 20 grains

        Mix well together and apply three or more times daily.

2. This will almost always cure. Another:

            Plain vaseline ......................... 1 tablespoonful
            Flowers of sulphur ..................... 1 drachm

        Mix and apply three times daily.

INDOLENT ULCERS.

Treatment—1. Foul and indolent ulcers, old sores, and so forth, require cleansing and healing applications. Among the best washes is the following:

            Carbolic acid, crystals ................ 20 to 40 drops
            Pure water .............................        1 pint

2. The well-known "black-wash" is also good, both for man and beast, and is made of:

            Calomel ................................ 2   drachms
            Lime water ............................. 1/2 pint

        Mix and apply as a wash or on soft white rags.

3. An excellent ointment for old sores and ulcers, is made as follows:

            Burnt alum ............................. 1 ounce
            Red precipitate ........................ 4 drachms
            White vitriol .......................... 2 drachms
            Sugar of lead .......................... 4 drachms

        Pulverize finely together and make into an ointment with
    one-half pound of cosmoline or plain vaseline.  Heat the
    vaseline and stir in the mixed powder, allowing it to cool
    slowly while stirring.

BITES AND STINGS.

Treatment.—The irritation and itching caused by the bites and stings of insects, such as the mosquito, bee, hornet, and so forth, are relieved by the prompt application of spirits of ammonia (hartshorn), or of the juice from common plaintain. Ordinary doses of sweet oil are also recommended for internal treatment, and it may also be applied externally with advantage. For treatment of snake bites and other poisoned wounds, see Poisons and Antidotes.

EARACHE.—INFLAMMATION OF THE EAR.

Treatment.—1. Beware of injections into the ear, or the use of any and all instruments. Either of the preparations here described will almost surely give relief:

            Sweet oil .............................. 2 teaspoonfuls
            Laudanum ............................... 1 teaspoonful
            Honey (strained) ....................... 1 teaspoonful

        Mix. Lie with head resting on the side opposite the
    inflamed ear, and drop from a warm teaspoon from four to six
    drops of this mixture into the affected ear; then stop with
    cotton.

2. Another, equally good, is:

            Onion juice ............................ 2 teaspoonfuls
            Sweet oil .............................. 2 teaspoonfuls
            Laudanum ............................... 1 teaspoonful

        Mix and use as above directed.  Be sure to apply warm, not
    below blood heat.  To get the onion juice, roast one or two
    large onions and press out the juice.  It is a good plan to
    soak the feet in hot water and take an active cathartic if
    bowels are in the least constipated.

GOUT.

Treatment.—1. Relief may sometimes be obtained by holding the affected part in warm saleratus water or a weak solution of lye. An excellent poultice can be made as follows:

            Powdered slippery elm .................. 2 tablespoonfuls
            Wheat bran ............................. 3 tablespoonfuls

        Mix with a weak solution of lye or good vinegar and apply
    warm to the affected part. Change when dry.

2. A good purgative is:

            Pulverized podophyllin ................. 1  grain
            Cream tartar ........................... 1 teaspoonful
            Sweetened water ........................ 1/2 teacupful

After the bowels are freely moved, use this:

            Tincture of black cohosh ............... 2 ounces
            Wine of colchicum ...................... 1 ounce
            Iodide of potassa ...................... 1 drachm

        Mix and take one teaspoonful three times a day.

GRAVEL.—CALCULUS.

An extremely painful and annoying disease, caused by stone or stony deposits in the kidneys or bladder.

Symptoms.—Symptoms are pain in region of kidneys and bladder, sometimes almost agonizing, frequent desire to pass water, and occasionally a partial or total stoppage of the urine. If the stone is located in the kidneys it is apt to produce nephritic colic.

Treatment.—1. This is chiefly palliative. To relieve the intense pain, use the following enema (injection):

            Thin-boiled starch ..................... 2 ounces
            Laudanum ............................... 30 drops

        This injection must be retained in the bowels as long as
    possible. If pain is very severe, put in forty drops of
    laudanum.  In place of this injection thirty drops of laudanum
    may be given internally every six hours, but the warm enema is
    better.  Hot compresses over the abdomen and back are also
    useful.

2. In some diseases notably dropsy, plethoric headache, certain stages of pleurisy, and so forth, it is necessary to give a cathartic that will produce profuse watery discharges; therefore it is well to have about twenty pills of this character made by an apothecary from the following formula:

            Comp. extract colocynth ................ 40 grains
            Gamboge ................................ 15 grains
            Podophyllin ............................ 10 grains
            Oil of caraway ......................... 10 drops

        Make into twenty pills with gum arabic mucilage.  Dose for
    adult: Two or sometimes three pills.

3. It is said that the following decoction, persevered in, will cure gravel:

            Apple root tea ......................... 1 quart
            Best Holland gin ....................... 1 pint
            Loaf sugar ............................. 8 ounces

        Dose: Small teacupful three times a day.  To make the apple
    root tea, take a good handful of bark from root of a sweet
    apple tree and steep in hot water, in a closed vessel, thirty
    minutes.

GIDDINESS—VERTIGO.

This is a symptom rather than a disease, and generally arises from a disordered stomach or (in women) a derangement of the menstrual functions. Ordinarily a good purgative, or sometimes an emetic, with hot foot-baths, will remedy the trouble.

GONORRHEA.

Treatment.—1. This should be chiefly by injection into the urethra and probably the best, especially for the earlier stages, is the following:

            Fluid extract hydrastis ................ 1 ounce
            Distilled water ........................ 6 ounces
            Gum arabic, pulverized ................. 2 drachms

        Mix and inject with proper syringe three or four times
    daily.

2. Another good injection:

            Nitrate of silver ...................... 6 grains
            Distilled water ........................ 4 ounces

        This may be used after the first injection has been used
    for five or six days, if the inflammation still persists.

3. Observe care as to diet, and so forth. Should the disease run into the chronic form, known as "gleet," we recommend the following:

            Tincture chloride of iron .............. 1/2 ounce
            Tincture cantharides ................... 1/4 ounce
            Pure water ............................. 2 ounces

        Mix. Dose: One teaspoonful three times a day.

NIGHT-SWEATS.

Treatment.—Sponge the body daily with a mixture composed of:

            Powdered alum .......................... 4 ounces
            Whiskey ................................ 1 quart

        Quinine, to the extent of one to three two-grain pills
    thrice daily, is also useful.

PROUD FLESH.

Treatment.—To remove proud flesh from wounds or sores take a piece of alum the size of a walnut, parch or burn and pulverize it; sprinkle a little of the powder over the affected surface, and it will destroy the proud flesh, leaving the sores healthy and in good shape for rapid healing. In case proud flesh appears again, repeat the process.

ST. VITUS' DANCE.

Treatment.—To tone up the nerve forces, administer tonic pill. Dose: one pill after each meal. Continue taking them for some little time, say a month or more. In ordinary cases no other treatment is necessary.

BUNIONS AND CORNS.

Treatment.—Bunions are generally incurable, but the pain is relieved by painting with tincture iodine twice daily. Corns will disappear when the cause—tight or ill-fitting shoes—is removed and discarded.

BURNS AND SCALDS.

Treatment.—1. For a first application, nothing is better than the mixture of linseed oil and lime-water, made as follows:

            Lime-water ............................. 3 ounces
            Linseed oil ............................ 3 ounces

        Mix and shake well.  Apply on lint or soft rags.  Never be
    without it.

This should he applied on lint, especially when the surface is raw, as ordinary cloth will adhere to the sore surface and cause much pain and suppuration. In cases where the skin is unbroken this lotion may be continued until recovery; but when the surface is raw and the skin nearly or quite destroyed, the lotion should be dispensed with after from eighteen to thirty hours, and the following healing ointment used instead:

            Oxide zinc (finely powdered) ........... 1 ounce
            Balsam of Peru ......................... 10 drops
            Cosmoline or vaseline .................. 8 ounces

        Heat the cosmoline and stir in the powdered oxide of zinc,
    being sure to mix well; add also the balsam and let it stand
    until cool. Apply on lint, using same precautions as are
    specified above.

2. If the lotion is not at hand, a fairly good substitute is a solution of common baking soda—one teaspoonful to a glass of water; but the lotion ought to be always in the house.

MORNING SICKNESS.

The "morning sickness," from which many women suffer during the early months of pregnancy, is exceedingly hard to relieve; in fact, it is sometimes impossible to do anything that will produce a favorable effect. It is better to attempt no medicinal treatment; but, in cases of extreme distress, an anti-spasmodic and anodyne mixture is sometimes required.

Treatment.—1. One of the best, perhaps, is the following:

            Laudanum ............................... 1/2 ounce
            Sulphuric ether ........................ 2 ounces
            Alcohol ................................ 6 ounces
            Oil of lemon ........................... 1  drachm
            Oil of anise ........................... 1  drachm

        Mix. Dose: One teaspoonful every half hour or somewhat more
    frequently if symptoms are very urgent and the sickness
    stubborn; do not give more than three or four doses, except
    under the direction of a physician.

2. Some practitioners have recommended the drinking of hot peppermint or chamomile tea upon rising in the morning as a means of averting these attacks, but the efficacy of this treatment is very doubtful. A tablespoonful or two of lime-water is more apt to be of service. It is important to keep the bowels free and regular, and in every other way to promote the general health.

PAINTER'S COLIC—LEAD COLIC.

Causes.—This is about the worst form of colic, and is attended by obstinate constipation, most violent pains, and more or less paralysis of the bowels and abdominal muscles. It is generally caused by inhaling the fumes arising from various preparations of lead, and the most frequent victims are painters and lead-workers.

Symptoms.—The attack generally comes on gradually, the pain beginning in the stomach and slowly extending downward. After a time the distress seems centered about the navel, and, in severe cases, there are shooting pains through the abdomen, with spasms of the intestines and abdominal muscles. Nausea is usually present, there is some vomiting, thirst, anxiety; the countenance is pale and contracted with pain; pulse is rapid; abdomen may become knotted and sore to the touch; the bowels seem paralyzed and incapable of expelling their contents. Unless relief is obtained inflammation of the bowels will occur, and death is almost certain.

Treatment.—1. The first thing to be done is to relieve the constipation by means of an active purgative, such as three to five of the antibilious pills (see Bilious Fever), and the application of hot fomentations over the whole abdomen. To relieve the spasm give an injection composed of:

            Thin-boiled atareh ..................... 2 tablespoonfuls
            Laudanum ............................... 30 to 40 drops

        Hypodermic injections of about one-eighth grain of morphia
    are also useful, but can be administered only by a physician.

2. In extreme cases, when the cathartic does not act promptly, it is sometime advisable to give from two to four drops of croton oil, on lump sugar; but this is a dangerous drug in the hands of any one except a physician.

HAIR TONICS.

Preparation.—1. For falling of the hair and to prevent baldness, use either of the following preparations:

            Alcohol ................................ 2 ounces
            Distilled water ........................ 2 ounces
            Castor oil ............................. 1 ounce
            Pulverized borax ....................... 1 drachm

        Mix the alcohol and castor oil together; then add the water
    and borax.  Apply twice daily, rubbing well into the scalp with
    a stiff brush.

2. Or:

            Alcohol ................................ 2-1/2 ounces
            Castor oil ............................. 1/2 ounce
            Sulphate quinine ....................... 2  grains
            Tincture cantharides ................... 1/2 drachm

        Mix and apply in same manner.  This has sometimes worked
    like magic.

TO REMOVE WARTS.

Treatment.—Take a little nitric acid in a glass-stoppered bottle and add one-half as much water, making the acid two-thirds normal strength. Apply by means of a little piece of wood, such as a match-stick, taking care to have the stick merely wet, and not with a drop adhering. Hold it on the top of wart until there is a slight burning sensation. Do not apply enough acid to cause active burning. Repeat this process daily, and patiently. In the course of a week or more the wart will be gone. Be careful not to let the acid touch any healthy surface, and do not try to do the work all at once. Avoid making a sore, even if it takes two or three weeks to destroy the wart.

TO PRESERVE LEATHER.

Preparation.—1. Grease or tallow, when applied to boots or shoes, harness, and so forth, shortly becomes rancid, and rots the leather and stitching; but the following mixture will preserve leather and render it water-proof, viz.:

            Beef tallow ............................ 1 pound
            Pulverized rosin ....................... 12 ounces

        Mix over a fire and melt together.  Apply while hot with a
    brush and allow to soak in thoroughly.  Apply to the soles of
    boots as well as the uppers.

2. If it is desired to polish the boots also, apply after a day or two:

            White wax .............................. 1 ounce
            Turpentine ............................. 1 teaspoonful
            Lampblack .............................. 1 teaspoonful

        Mix and dissolve.  Apply cold, a light dressing of this
    mixture, and your boots will not only be water-proof, but will
    have a high polish.

TO REMOVE ODOR OF PERSPIRATION.

A frequent source of vexation to ladies and gentlemen is the unpleasant odor arising from perspiration. This may be entirely removed by adding one or two tablespoonfuls of hartshorn (spirits of ammonia) to each gallon of water used for bathing. Its excessive use, however, is not recommended, although no serious trouble can arise from it.


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