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Beautiful Plate of the Eye.—The beautiful flesh-colored engraving at the right-hand top corner of this exquisite composite anatomical plate gives a strikingly natural, life-size representation of the human eye, together with its external appendages, the eyebrows, the eyelids, and the lachrymal or tear glands.

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Muscles of the Eye.—On turning the flap we see four of the six delicate, but withal strong muscles which not only hold the eye firmly in its bony orbit, but also move it upward toward the canopied vaults of heaven, downward to view the beauties of nature on earth; or sidewise, to the right or left, spanning half the horizon at a single glance! The next illustration gives us a graphic and faithful delineation of the beautiful arrangements of the numerous curtains, humors, lenses, pigments, membranes, nervous coats and blood-vessels which enter into the composition of this remarkable organ, each of which is exquisitely adapted to the respective functions it has to perform.

Wonders of the Eye.—The human eye is one of the most wonderful, as well as delicate, organs of the body. It is the window through which the heart, mind and soul of man shines. Sorrow or joy, grief or mirth, pain or pleasure, sunshine or shadow are reflected through this wondrous camera of light; the human passions hold their orgies in this window; truth and love dance their happy and joyous day-dreams before its luminous curtain; and through it accurate delineations of every object that comes within its range are carried to and photographed on the brain, the great art gallery of the soul! Can man, with all of his great and scientific achievements, conceive of anything in the arcana of his accomplishments more beautiful, more wonderful, or more perfect than the human eye!


The External Ear.—The organ of hearing consists of three parts, the external ear, the middle ear or tympanum, and the internal ear or labyrinth. The external part of the ear represented in this colored engraving is very realistic of that essential appendage to this important special organ of sense in man. It consists of an expanded sheet of cartilage, folded in true trumpet fashion, for collecting the sound waves and conveying them to the external meatus or mouth of the auditory canal.

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The Ear Drum.—On the back of this flap is seen a strikingly natural representation of the middle ear, the tympanum or drum, as it is frequently called. From the bottom of the tympanum is observed the Eustachian tube, through which is conveyed air from the pharynx to the middle ear. Across this chamber is seen stretched three very tiny, singular bones, which, from their shape, are called the hammer, the anvil and the stapes. These delicate bones are connected together, one by ball and socket joint, the other by a hinge-joint and by ligaments, and are moved by small muscles; they serve to convey the wave sounds across the tympanum cavity to the internal ear.

Show of Ear Canals.—The semicircular canals, and the cochlea, so named from its resembalnce to a snail's shell, are also typically shown. In the next colored illustration we observe a graphic and truthful view of the delicate internal arrangement and mechanism of the internal part of the organ of hearing. Here we observe the winding stair of the cochlea, over the surface of which the delicate fibrils of the auditory nerve expand, and the minute fibres of Corti, called from their discoverer, are seen arranged with geometrical precision, the longest at the bottom and the shortest at the top.

Wonders of the Spiral Plate.—If this curious and artistic spiral plate, which is seen to wind two and one-half times round, could be unrolled and made to stand in an upright position, it would make a beautiful microscopic harp, not of a thousand strings, but of three thousand strings, and if it were possible to strike these delicate infinitesimal cords as we can the keyboard of an organ or piano, every conceivable variety of tone that the ear can distinguish would be produced and conveyed to the brain as the product of sound.


Engraving of the Hand.—To tell one that this, exquisite colored engraving represents a human hand seems almost like questioning his sanity. Yet such it is; but how few there are who can give an intelligent account of the hand, describe its beautiful arrangements and complex mechanism, or tell of its wonderful endowments. Small in compass, compact in structure, yet so skilfully arranged are its blood-vessels and nerves, that they form a complete net-work over its surface. So minute are they in their distribution that the point of the finest needle cannot penetrate any part of the hand without piercing quite a number of them. The hand is the great organ of touch and prehension, and the instrument which distinguishes man in the large class of mammals, since he is the only animal which possesses two perfect and complete hands.

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Bony Frame of the Hand.—On turning over this flap we behold the bony frame-work of this wonderful organ. It is seen to consist of a number of bones, so exquisitely arranged as to combine the greatest possible degree of flexibility and strength.

Palm of the Hand.—Below this is given an elegant, and at the same time a true and correct view of the muscular arrangement of the palm of the hand and fingers. Over the wrist is seen the annular ligament, that thin, tough. strong sheath, which binds the muscular cords and holds them firmly in place. Thus in these three anatomical charts have we depicted the perfection of the human hand.

Powers of the Hand.—And how varied and useful are its endowments! How wondrously adapted to the uses to which it is daily applied! Its elegance of outline, delicacy of mould and beauty of color has ever made it the attractive study of the artist; whilst its elasticity, flexibility and strength, combined with its delicate and exquisite mobility, and perfect adaptation as an organ of prehension, have led many philosophers to attribute man's high and graceful superiority even more to the hand than to the mind. Glowing thoughts are penned upon the pages of history by means of the hand; it wields the artist' s pencil and brush, and makes the bare canvas an attractive and valuable work of art; now it strikes the keyboard of the piano with so delicate a touch that low, sweet, plaintive strains of music are brought forth; now the force of the blow is much greater and firmer, and louder and louder and more thrilling the musical strains.

Skill of the Hand.—The farmer's toil, the housewife's task; the dressmaker's deftness, the mechanic's skill, are all accomplished by the human hand. How constantly this little instrument aids us in expressing our feelings. It is the orators chief aid in giving expression to his lofty strains of eloquence, or emphasizing his pathetic appeals.

Various Uses of the Hand.—With the hand we affirm or reject a proposition with more force than with the tongue. It is the first to greet, and the last to bid our friends good-bye. We use it to express our joy and pleasure, or to give vent to our fear and horror. In the hour of peril we employ it in powerful supplication to Him to whom we look for succor and help, and it adds force and power to the appeals of suffering, of sorrow and of woe. It bestows its loving caresses on the downy cheek of the baby, invokes the blessings of Heaven, pleads for mercy, or hurls curses on our enemies. Indeed, we do not always seem to realize how many notes in the tune of human life the hand of man is made to play. Its beauties, its perfect adaptability, its varied endowments, and the different uses to which it is applied, are almost beyond our thoughts, and he who is deprived of this useful member sustains a loss that none can estimate, nor the wealth of Croesus compensate.


Arrangement and Uses of the Foot.—In this exquisite colored engraving is represented the human foot, the organ by which we stand, walk or run. Look at it carefully, aye, critically, and see if you can duplicate it in the whole range of man's achievements! The general arrangement of the bony frame-work of the foot, as seen in this illustration, is strikingly like that of the hand. The graceful arch of the foot, composed by the tarsal and metatarsal bones, is firmly joined together by a thick layer of cartilaginous structure, not only preventing a liability to displacement, but giving to it an elasticity, sprightliness and strength which could never be attained by a single flat bone. In the next colored illustration we have a section of the foot, showing its architectural dignity and perfection. On its under or plantar surface are seen stretching from the heel forward toward the toes a number of ligaments, the principal one of which is the plantar ligament, and possesses great strength and elasticity.

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The Toes.—The toes are observed to be straight forward in a line with the general contour of the foot. This is their natural position. The beautiful outline of the natural foot, as here represented in these several different views, the graceful arch of the instep, the elegance of its form, its marvelous elasticity and strength, all combine to make the foot not only of great perfection and beauty, but admirably fit it for the manifold duties it is called upon to perform. Man, in his diversified labors and varied trials throughout life, is sometimes obliged to walk, run, jump, leap, climb, stand erect, lean forward, etc., and he depends upon the foot to maintain his equilibrium in the performance of these several duties.

Beauty and Strength of the Foot.—Not only does the foot, too, frequently sustain heavy weights, but it must carry them as well. It likewise affords a firm support. Were it not for this beautiful mechanism, the constant jarring and concussion which would be experienced in the act of walking would inevitably destroy those delicate organs, the brain and spinal cord, and death would immediately follow. How few persons in civilized nations have perfectly natural feet! The beauty and utility of the human foot is marred; its movements are impeded by encasement in unnatural boots and shoes; these, instead of conforming to the form and shape of the foot, make the foot adapt itself to them. The consequence is corns, bunions, cross toes, ingrowing toe-nails, large joints, and a number of other evils from which so many suffer at the present day.


Leg Muscles.—In every part of the human frame there is witnessed ample evidence of design, beauty of architecture, great skill, finished workmanship, and a perfect adaptability to the duties to be performed. This fact is strikingly illustrated in the beautifully executed colored plate to which attention is now drawn, showing, as it does, at a glance, the thick, strong, muscular instruments employed and the manifold intricacies involved in the act of human locomotion. This exquisitely artistic anatomical plate represents a front view of the thigh, leg and foot, and of the fifty-four fleshy levers which give form, shape, symmetry, strength and mobility to this useful member of the body. Quite a number of the most important are seen exposed to view, after the skin and fatty tissues have been removed. We are deeply impressed with their large size and great strength, both of which correspond with the requirements demanded in the varied work which the leg is called upon to perform.

Use of the Leg Muscles.—The muscles observed in this plate are the principal instruments for carrying out the behests of the will in the acts of walking, running, leaping, climbing, and the graceful gliding motions of the entrancing and captivating waltz; and although we see a complicated piece of machinery, yet there is perfect order. Harmony, promptitude and exactness prevail, not only in the skilful manner in which they are individually and collectively arranged, but in the action of the different muscles, each one of which performs its duty either independently of, or in connection with, its fellow lever, and that, too, without interfering in the slightest degree with the functions of the others.

Muscular Levers.—These great muscular levers bend the body forward on the thigh, and bring the legs inward toward each other, besides moving the whole body to and fro when walking, etc. The long narrow muscle, seen running obliquely across the thigh, is the Sartorius muscle, so-called from the fact that it crosses the legs for the sartorial (tailor's) posture. It is the longest muscle in the body.

The Knee-Pan.—The patella or knee-pan is seen held firmly in position, giving greater strength and security to this important joint. Around the ankle is observed the annular ligament, binding the long silvery thongs or tendons of the muscles of the legs, thus preventing their displacement. It also affords security and strength to the ankle joint, though not interfering with its elasticity and motion. The foot shows us the natural position and shape in which the toes should be when encased in a boot or shoe.

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Thigh and Leg Bones.—On turning the flap we see the bones of the thigh and leg, and a front view of the bones of the ankle joint and foot. As was to be naturally expected, we here find the largest, the longest and strongest bone in the human body, since, with every step taken, it has to bear the entire weight of that wonderfully and fearfully constructed body, and support whatever additional burdens or weights one is called upon to impose in the course of his daily labors. The bone is observed to be compressed, somewhat cylindrical in shape, but expanded at both ends, thus giving it the greatest possible degree of strength. At its lower end it articulates, and forms a hinge-joint with the knee, the strength and protection of which is further secured by the shape and position of the knee-pan.

The Shin Bone.—The tibia or shin bone is also a very large, strong, triangular-shaped bone, enlarged at both ends; the lower end, however, where it articulates and forms a hinge-joint with the foot, is larger and more prominent than the upper end. And as if this bone was not sufficiently strong enough in itself to bear the weight of the body, our Creator, with that boundless wisdom and forethought which everywhere in the human frame we see revealed, strengthens the leg by an additional bone, which is seen running on the outer side of the shin bone, and to which it is firmly bound at both ends.

The Fibula.—Not only does this second bone—the fibula—give additional strength and support to the leg proper, but it likewise increases the bony area or surface of the leg, to which its powerful muscular levers are attached.

The Sciatic Nerve.—The large sciatic nerve, its position, course and distribution, is graphically outlined, and as we look upon this white, sensitive cord, we are deeply impressed with the force and truth of what Shakspeare makes one of his characters, Timon, say:

"------The cold SCIATICA
Cripples our senators, that their limbs may halt
As lamely as their manners."

Muscles of Thigh and Leg.—Turning to the next colored illustration, we have a graphic and faithful view of the deeper muscular arrangements of the thigh and leg, together with a striking description of the nervous supply of the lower extremity. These beautiful, silvery threads are the wires which carry the behests of the will to the muscular levers, and whose commands the muscles promptly obey; and give to the leg its wonderful and diversified endowments. To stand erect is a very difficult and complex act, and the process of walking is a no less difficult or complex function. Few persons ever realize the peril involved in walking, and it has only become safe by constant practice.

Art of Walking.—Walking requires the nicest adjustment, prompt action, and the finest calculations to maintain the dignity, proper attitude, equipoise and balance of the body. This is well illustrated when one runs up against any obstacle in the dark. We observe then with what headlong force the body is propelled forward. In walking the first thing that occurs is the inclining of the body forward; the foot is then gradually raised upon the toes, and brought from a horizontal position into an almost vertical one; at the same time the knee, which was at first considerably bent, straightens out by the advancing forward movement. Every part of the leg and thigh has changed its position except the toes; that part farthest from the toes the most of all; and gradually diminishing in geometrical proportions downward.

How We Walk.—The foot is then raised from the ground and swung forward in true pendulum fashion. The leg in so doing becomes flexed at the knee-joint, and considerably shorter, and the whole weight of the body is transferred to and supported by the leg and foot, which is planted firmly on the ground. The leg and the foot which was swinging in the air is now brought down to the ground, the muscles passing through changes just the reverse of those employed in raising it. Planting this foot firmly on the ground, to prevent the body from falling, we raise the other foot, swing it forward, the leg describing the same movements as before, repeating the process alternately with each leg. These movements constitute the act of walking; the complexity of which is fully illustrated by the complicated machinery employed for its performance, as we have seen in the beautiful plates showing the wonderful and skilful arrangements of the bones and muscles of the leg.

Grace and Ease in Walking.—In the several beautiful anatomical charts illustrating the bony, muscular and internal mechanism of the human frame we have been consciously awakened to its complexity; we have been forcibly impressed at the amazing skill and wisdom displayed in its marvelous arrangement, and at the general order, system, harmony and perfection which everywhere prevails throughout the diversified contrivance of the body. But its wonders do not stop there. The graceful motion, the ease with which we walk, run, leap, dance, etc., demonstrate with what astonishing rapidity the different muscles concerned in those movements contract and obey the impulse of the will.

The Voice.—The voice may utter one thousand five hundred letters in a minute, yet the articulation of each of those sounds requires a different and distinct position of the vocal organs, the muscles of which move with surprising celerity and swiftness.

Deftness of the Fingers.—In music we train the muscles of the fingers until they glide over the keyboard of the piano with dexterity and precision, and perform the most simple and delightfully exquisite music and on to the grand, difficult and complex passage of operatic harmony. The mind of the skilful and professional violinist is upon the music which his right hand is executing by the varied movements of the bow, yet the muscles of his left hand and fingers are deftly engaged in determining the length of the space on the strings, the character and duration of each note; and so rapidly, carefully, aye, even unconsciously are these complex movements made, that not a false note is heard, though the variation of a single hair's breadth would cause a discord, and thus spoil the pleasing effect of the music, and destroy the attractiveness of its harmony.

Muscle Development.—The bicep muscle in the arm of the blacksmith may grow strong, hard, firm, and as solid almost as a club; the legs of the pedestrian may become large and well developed; the hand of a prize fighter may be trained to strike a stunning blow with the force of a sledge hammer; while the penman can describe the most beautiful curves, the engraver trace lines so delicate and fine as to be invisible to the naked eye, and the fingers of the blind acquire a delicacy of touch that almost compensates for the missing sense. Thus there are few conceptions of the designing mind which the muscular system of man cannot be made to execute and perform.

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Last Modified: Monday, 13-May-2013 15:31:46 EDT