The materials of this group are far more numerous than those of the preceding group. They will be found arranged according to their scientific names, the common names also being given.

ACETANILID (Acetanilidum).

Definition.—A white, crystalline substance, made from acetic acid.

Property.—It is sedative to the nervous system; causes a lowering of the temperature associated with free sweating.

Use.—It is employed in the treatment of spasms, for the relief of headache and to reduce temperature in mild cases of fever.

Manner of Using.—May be used as the powder or in the form of a tablet or capsule, five grains being the usual dose.

ACETIC ACID (Acidum Aceticum).

Definition.—A colorless liquid with a vinegar-like odor.

Property.—It checks hemorrhage locally, also has a soothing local effect. Taken internally it produces a cooling sensation.

Use.—It is useful as an antagonist to scurvy, as a refrigerant in mild cases of fever and locally for its soothing properties in sunburn. It acts also as a styptic.

Manner of Using.—The dilute acid is the safe preparation and may be used in amounts from one to two teaspoonfuls.

CARBOLIC ACID (Acidum Carbolicum).

Definition.—Carbolic acid is made from coal-tar. It occurs in the form of colorless crystals, but exposure quickly converts it into a colorless or slightly reddish liquid.

Property.—A slight fall in temperature follows the use of carbolic acid. Its chief action depends upon its property of destroying low forms of germ life.

Use.—By virtue of its properties it is used as an antiseptic and internally as an antiferment.

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Saffron.—This plant is common in orchards and of a deep orange color. It is used as an infusion (tea); boiling one ounce of leaves in two pints of water. It is a pleasant home remedy in the beginning of scarlet fever, measles and chicken-pox, serving to bring out the eruptions. Dose, from half to a whole wineglassful, three times a day. It is also good as a gargle in sore throat.

Yellow Goat's Beard.—A tea of the root, bark and leaves of this plant is used for diarrhoea in children. Boil one ounce of root in two pints of water. Take two or three tablespoonfuls three or four times a day.

Hedge Mustard.—Used cooked for table purposes as a stimulus to the stomach and to relieve coughing. Also used in the form of an infusion (tea) to cleanse ulcers and wounds. Boil an ounce of seeds, or a quantity of leaves, in a quart of water and wash the sore parts twice a day.

Common Hedge Kettle.—Made into a tea and drunk freely is excellent for hemorrhages of lungs and stomach. In doses of half a wineglassful four times a day it relieves neuralgia. A poultice of the leaves also relieves neuralgic pain and aids in the cure of wounds. Used at times as a tea, and drunk in wineglass doses twice a day, to promote menstruation and kill worms.

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Cathartic Ramno.—A tea of the bark, taken in tablespoonful doses, three times a day, opens the bowels. But caution is needed, lest it lead to purging.

Fennel.—The seeds and leaves in the form of a strong infusion (tea) are excellent for colic. The seeds in the form of powder are also good for cramps. Dose of the tea, a wineglassful, repeated at half-hour intervals, if necessary. Dose of the powdered seeds, ten to twenty grains.

Tansy.—Tansy tea, in doses of a teacupful twice a day, promotes menstruation. In the form of bitters, it strengthens weakened constitutions. Cold tansy tea, drunk freely, is good for dyspepsia. An oil of the plant is supposed to produce abortion, but its use is very dangerous.

Wood Sorrel.—A poultice of the leaves was once a popular application in cases of cancer. Sorrel tea, drunk freely, also aids in giving relief to cancerous affections.

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Stavesacre or Lousewort.—The crushed seeds, made into a paste and rubbed on the head, is an effective way to kill lice.

Golden Thistle.—A tea of one ounce of leaves or stems to two pints of water will relieve colic. Dose, a wineglassful, repeated every half-hour, if necessary.

Lime-Tree.—The juice of the lime, mixed with water, is a refreshing drink, in frequent sips, for fever sufferers. Lime juice in large quantities is carried on board ships as a preventive of scurvy.

Bed-Berried Trailing Arbutus.—A strong tea, made of one ounce of the leaves to a quart of water, and taken in doses of two tablespoonfuls three times a day, is used to relieve bladder trouble. It diminishes the irritation caused by the urine, and the inflammation and pain.

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Henbane.—This plant, like belladonna, is a powerful poison. It is used in the form of an extract to soothe pain. Dose, one-eighth to one-half a grain once or twice a day. It is frequently used in cases of delirium where opium cannot be used. Great caution is needed in its administration.

Mountain Balm or Calamint.—Make a tea of the root, dilute with water and sweeten. Give in teaspoonful doses at intervals of half an hour to relieve wind-colic in children.

Sage or Salvia.—Sage tea either alone or mixed with vinegar, honey or alum is an excellent gargle for sore throats. Drank freely it cures night-sweats. Simmered in lard and taken four or five times a day in doses of two spoonfuls each cures quinsy.

Mustard.—Powdered mustard seeds are used on the table and in medicine. One or two teaspoonfuls in a glass of hot water is used to provoke vomiting. If necessary, repeat the dose till the desired result is reached. Mustard in the form of plasters or poultices soothes pain and promotes circulation. Mustard seeds, in doses of a teaspoonful three times a day, relieves dyspepsia. Mustard plasters, applied to the extremities, serve to bring out again the eruption where it has gone in, in such cases as measles and scarlet fever.

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Common Thorn-Apple.—This plant belongs to the same family as henbane and belladonna. Cigarettes made from the dried leaves, and smoked, are good to calm asthma difficulties.

Asparagus.—Used as a table dish gently stimulates the kidneys. In the form of tea, drunk at three or four hour intervals, it promotes a free flow of urine.

Marshmallow.—The powdered root may be used as a poultice in cases of gangrene. A fresh infusion (tea), drunk freely, is of service in children's diseases, and especially in Bright's disease. Marshmallow drops are useful in sore throat, in scarlatina and diphtheria. The dose is indefinite. An infusion, drunk freely, is good for acute gonorrhea, and all affections of the mucous membrane of lungs and bowels, and inflammations of kidneys and bladder.

Hops.—The root, used as a powder or a pill, soothes the irritation of the urinary organs and the pains of gonorrhea. Infusion of hops, or hop tea, is made by taking a tablespoonful of hops to a pint of water and is given in doses of two to five ounces, twice to three times a day. In delirium tremens hop-tea quiets drink craving and settles the stomach. In insomnia and restlessness it is useful in producing sleep. A hop poultice gives relief in local painful affections. Or the hops may be placed in flannel and moistened with hot whiskey and applied to painful cases, as in toothache or earache, where the warmth and steam are very soothing. The inhalation of the vapor of hops is often attended with good results, especially in diseases of the throat and chest.

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Common Scurvy-Grass.—This plant is popularly eaten as a salad and is useful in scurvy, chronic rheumatism and chronic malaria. The juice has been used externally for the purpose of stimulating indolent ulcers and, diluted with water, as a mouth-wash for spongy gums and ulcers of the mouth.

Meadow Saffron.—Saffron-tea, drunk freely, is used in domestic practice to bring out the eruption in measles and scarlet fever and to cause sweating. Externally it is used in bruises, rheumatic and neuralgic pains and in the form of ointment for bleeding piles.

Garlic.—Garlic, onion and leek are used in bronchitis and chronic cough. Here it can also be applied to the chest in the form of a poultice, or the oil can be used externally. A garlic poultice may also be successfully employed in convulsions and intestinal and stomach troubles of children. Garlic is also given for worms. It is a domestic remedy in whooping-cough. Syrup of garlic is given in doses of five drops to a teaspoonful, two to three times a day, or oftener, if the coughing spells are frequent and violent.

Horse-Radish.—Used as a tonic for the digestion, and to promote the secretion, of the kidneys. Syrup of grated horse-radish and honey or sweetened water, taken in teaspoonful doses every hour, will cure hoarseness. Horse-radish tea, drunk freely, is beneficial in rheumatism and neuralgia.

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Common Juniper.—By boiling an ounce of the berries (pounded) in two pints of water an infusion is obtained which stimulates the action of the kidneys. A pint is drunk through the day in Bright's disease with its attendant dropsy. The juice of the berries has been successfully used in doses of two or three teaspoonfuls daily in children to promote the secretion of urine. The oil may be dropped in boiling water and inhaled to produce the same effect.

Currants.—The juice of the berry, boiled and sweetened, and in teaspoonful doses three to four times a day, is binding in infantile diarrhoea.

Common White Hoarhound.—The herb may be used in infusion (an ounce to a pint of water), taken hot and frequently in recent colds to produce sweating. The cold tea, drunk freely, is serviceable in chronic lung affections. Cough-drops are used for sore throat and cough.

Colt's Foot.—The infusion of the dry leaves is used to soften the phlegm in chronic catarrh. It may be drunk freely.

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Plantain.—The fresh leaves are pounded in a mortar into a paste and applied to wounds to check bleeding. In sumach poisoning, burns, scalds, bruises, and even erysipelas it is said to be extremely useful.

Poppy.—By cutting the unripe seed pod a milky fluid is obtained called opium. Powdered opium may be mixed into a paste with water and applied to a beginning boil with relief. Opium is used in medicine in many forms, as laudanum, morphine, paregoric, and so forth. It is given in various forms and quantities to relieve pain and irritation, to relax spasm, to produce sleep, to check secretions and to influence nutrition. It should be used with great caution.

Pennyroyal.—Pennyroyal tea, or a recent infusion of the leaves and tops, is used in flatulent colic and recent suppression of the menses. The infusion may be drunk in teacupful doses, several times a day. The fresh herb is said to be obnoxious to mosquitoes and may be hung about the sleeping room, or the hands and face bathed with a recent infusion or a solution of the oil in alcohol (one to ten) in order to keep off these midnight marauders.

Hellebore.—This has been used by some to bring on the menstrual flow by purging, but is now very rarely employed. It causes vomiting and acts on the heart. It also destroys sensation when used locally. This medicine should be carefully used, as it is very poisonous. The dose is four to fifteen grains. A dose of the fluid extract of black hellebore, three to five drops three times a day, is used in dropsy, especially dropsy of the brain.

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Peony.—An infusion is made by boiling one ounce of the powdered root in a pint of water. It is good in spasms, whooping-cough and nervous diseases. Dose, half a cup four times a day. Formerly it was considered as a tonic for the nerves and was given for epilepsy and St. Vitus' dance.

Perforated St. John's Wort..—This plant is used as a tea to promote menstruation. It may be taken in wineglass doses three to four times a day.

Wolf's Bane.—This drug, which is better known under the name of aconite, is very powerful and dangerous. It is given in the first periods of fevers and inflammations, such as pneumonia, erysipelas and rheumatism. A few drops of the tincture are mixed in a tumbler of water and a teaspoonful of this is given every ten, fifteen or twenty minutes. Asthma, especially in children, and preceded by cold in the head, is generally benefited by it. In the form of a liniment it is used in neuralgia. Extreme care must be taken in using wolf's bane.

Lily of the Valley.—In small doses this drug strengthens the heart; in larger quantities it quiets it. It quickly relieves the shortness of breath and palpitation in heart disease, and after having been given for two or three days may be stopped for a week or more without the symptoms returning. It increases the flow of urine and reduces dropsy. An infusion or tea is made by taking one part of the underground stem and rootlets to three parts of water. The dose of the infusion is a tablespoonful to a wineglassful two to three times a day.

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Flax.—Ground flaxseed mixed with boiling water forms flaxseed poultice, which is spread at least half an inch in thickness upon muslin or flannel, and applied as hot as possible in order to relieve pain and congestion in peritonitis and in pneumonia, pleurisy, and so forth, as jacket poultices, renewed every two or three hours. Flaxseed poultices are also applied to boils and abscesses to abort them or to hasten their ripening.

A hot infusion (a tablespoonful to a pint of water) flavored with licorice root or lemon peel is used in colds of the chest, to cause sweating and to loosen the cough. Flaxseed tea, drunk freely, is used as a soothing drink in inflammation of the stomach. Whole flaxseed, in tablespoonful doses, once or twice a day, has been ordered as a laxative in habitual constipation.

The oil of flaxseed, or linseed oil, is an old application to burns.

Wormwood.—An infusion is made with one or two teaspoonfuls of the plant to a pint of water, and in wineglassful doses is used as a tonic or for worms in children. It is a domestic remedy for flatulent dyspepsia and weak digestion. Dose, from one to four tablespoonfuls twice a day. Externally it has been used as a stimulating application to indolent ulcers. A tincture, flavored with aromatics, forms an intoxicating drink called absinthe, used to a large extent in France.

Carrot.—The seeds are ground into powder and used to relieve colic and to increase the flow of urine. The dose is half a teaspoonful to a teaspoonful, twice daily. The root is said to be excellent for poultices. Carrot, used as a substitute for chewing tobacco, has been said to cure kidney complaint.

Horse Chestnut.—The bark is used, the best preparation being a fluid extract with dilute alcohol, although a decoction or tea is also employed. The dose of the fluid extract is twenty drops to a teaspoonful, three times a day. It is said to be a good substitute for quinine in malarial fevers and is also used in neuralgia. A dose of the tincture, three to five drops, three times a day, is a remedy for itching or burning piles.

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Licorice.—Licorice root is soothing to the throat, loosens cough and is laxative. Licorice is given for cough as Brown mixture and Wistar's cough lozenges. One to two teaspoonfuls of compound licorice powder is given daily in constipation, especially during pregnancy.

Iris (Straw Lily).—The powdered root, when fresh, produces vomiting and is a powerful cathartic; less so after drying. In chronic liver trouble, especially of malarial origin, the preparations of iris are very useful. In dropsy they are also of service in stimulating both the kidneys and bowels. They are also given for worms. The dose of the extract is a quarter of a grain to a grain, and of the fluid extract, half a teaspoonful to a teaspoonful, two to three times a day.

Dandelion.—The root should be gathered in the autumn. An infusion is made by taking two ounces of the fresh leaves or roots to a pint of water, the dose being two to four tablespoonfuls, two to three times a day. The preparations are bitter and probably stimulate digestion and act as a tonic. Dandelion is a laxative and increases the flow of urine. It is also prescribed for jaundice and for a sluggish liver. If the extract be used, the dose is from five to twenty grains three times a day,

Blackberry—Common Bramble.—The bark of the root is used. It is binding and tonic. It is used in diarrhoea, especially after cleansing the bowels with castor oil. The best preparation of the blackberry root is the fluid extract, given in doses of half a teaspoonful three or four times daily. The syrup and the spiced syrup in the dose of a teaspoonful to a tablespoonful are also used. Very popular preparations are blackberry cordial and blackberry brandy, of which a teaspoonful to a tablespoonful is taken, three or four times a day. Blackberry tea is valuable as an enema in leucorrhea, gleet and falling of the womb.

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Great Mullein.—This plant grows by the roadside and in neglected fields. It is given for catarrh, coughs, dysentery and piles in the form of an infusion made with milk, four ounces of the fresh or a corresponding quantity of the dry leaves being boiled for ten minutes in a pint of fresh milk. This quantity is to be drunk thrice daily while still warm. It has long enjoyed a popular repute in Ireland as a remedy in diseases of the lungs. It has likewise been used in diarrhoea and inflammation of the bladder.

The flowers are said to remove warts. They are applied, while fresh, by pressing and rubbing upon the growth.

Rosemary.—From one and one-half to three teaspoonfuls of the plant, dried and powdered, taken as an infusion (tea), are said to produce decided sweating. The oil of rosemary is used in hair lotions and in an ointment used in neuralgia, chronic rheumatism and lumbago.

Nettle.—The juice of the nettle, in teaspoonful doses every hour, is of great value in cases of hemorrhage of the nose, lungs, intestines and urinary organs. The decoction may be made either with the seeds or with the leaves, and, drunk freely, is excellent for diarrhoea and dysentery.

Belladonna.—The fleshy, creeping root is especially useful, but must be taken from plants at least three years old. The leaves of belladonna or deadly night-shade are also used, the smaller leaves gathered when the plant is in flower being best.

Locally, belladonna is used as an ointment or liniment in neuralgia, chronic rheumatism; also to check sweating and relieve local pain. Internally it is used chiefly to relieve pain, relax spasm and check over-secretion or bad discharge.

Its power of widening the pupil is used in treating the eye. In giving this dangerous drug the eye should be carefully watched. The dose of the tincture is five to twenty drops, once or twice a day, in cases of neuralgia, spasms and other nervous affections. Great caution is required, as the medicine is a poison.

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Parsley.—A hot infusion is made by taking an ounce of the fresh root to a pint of water. One to four teaspoonfuls, given three times daily, in cases of scanty menstruation will relieve pain. It is used to increase the secretion of urine in dropsy and gonorrhea, in the form of a decoction, drunk freely.

Valerian.—The underground stem and roots are used. It is given in the nervous disorders of women, especially nervous headache and hysteria. The various nervous disturbances which occur at the changes are relieved by it. In convulsion or St. Vitus' dance in children, due to worms, and in whooping-cough it has been used with success. One to two teaspoonfuls of the tincture is given, three times daily.

Digitalis or Foxglove.—The leaves are gathered from plants of the second year's growth and must be carefully selected. An infusion is made by taking one and one-half parts to one hundred parts of water.

Locally, digitalis is used in joint inflammation. A poultice containing a teaspoonful or two of the leaves is placed over the kidneys in cases of difficult or impossible urination.

Its chief internal use is in heart disease, although it is often given for bleeding. The dose of the infusion is a teaspoonful to a tablespoonful, three or four times a day.

Crow-Foot.—The buttercup plant is sometimes used externally in eases of rheumatism. As it belongs to a very poisonous species, it should be used carefully and only on the prescription of a physician.

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Hemlock.—The full-grown fruit is gathered while yet green. Conium juice is expressed from the fresh leaves and has half its quantity of alcohol added to it to preserve it. This is given in doses of half a teaspoonful to two teaspoonfuls. The seeds are used in making most preparations. Internally it is sometimes used in nervous affections, but it is a dangerous poison and should be used cautiously.

Poultices of the leaves of hemlock and flaxseed (two parts of the former to six of the latter) with boiling water, have been used as a soothing dressing to painful swellings. A hemlock ointment is made by bruising the leaves with sufficient water and extracting and mixing the juice with lard, and is an excellent local remedy in painful maladies.

Barberries.—The bark of the root has been made into an infusion, but the fluid extract in ten- to thirty-drop doses is most used. In this form the drug is tonic and stimulates the kidneys. It is valuable in the treatment of blood diseases, dyspepsia, liver trouble, habitual constipation and skin disease. The tea of the bark may be taken in doses of three to four teaspoonfuls, three times a day.

Elder.—One to two teaspoonfuls of an infusion of the flowers, drank while hot, increases the flow of urine and causes sweating. It may cause vomiting if given in too large a quantity. The flowers are edible and are used in scurvy, rheumatism and syphilis. Elderberry jam is laxative.

A decoction is made of the inner bark which acts on the kidneys and intestines. One or two teaspoonfuls, two to three times a day, is the dose.

Oak-Tree.—A decoction is made of one ounce of the bark to a pint of water and given in doses of half a teaspoonful to a teaspoonful, three times daily, for dysentery and diarrhoea. It is occasionally used as an injection or wash in leucorrhea; also as a gargle in sore throat and catarrh. The powdered bark is used on ulcers. The oak yields tannic acid, in which form it is used as an astringent enema in gonorrhea, gleet and leucorrhea.

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Bitter-Sweet Nightshade.—A decoction is made by boiling an ounce of the young branches in a pint of water and given in doses of a teaspoonful to a wineglassful two or three times daily, for jaundice, rheumatism and syphilitic affections. It is believed to be of use in long-standing scaly eruptions. The fresh decoction, drunk freely, is used to produce sweating in rheumatism or acute bronchitis and colds. It is also beneficial in the diarrhoeas of children when caused by exposure to cold or damp. The dosage should be small and cautiously given.

Common Chamomile.—The infusion is made with a tablespoonful of the flower heads to a pint of water and is taken freely. In large doses the hot infusion causes vomiting, but in one- or two-ounce doses it relieves gas in the stomach, favors perspiration and the action of the kidneys. Locally it may be used as a poultice. It is used principally in domestic practice in the treatment of colds, bronchitis and dyspepsia, and is taken in the form of an infusion in doses of from two to three tablespoonfuls, two or three times daily.

Caraway-Seed.—An oil is made from the fruit and used in doses of one to five drops, two or three times a day, for distension of the abdomen due to gas. It is combined with other medicines to lend a pleasant flavor and to prevent griping.

Geranium.—A decoction can be made from the underground stem. It improves the appetite and digestion and promotes nutrition. It is used to stop bleeding. As an injection it is serviceable in gonorrhea, gleet and leucorrhea. In diarrhoea in children the decoction may be given in milk, which covers its taste. Dose, one-fourth to one-half teaspoonful, five or six times a day.

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Common Dill.—The fruit of this plant is warming, stimulating and quiets nervousness. A tea of the plant, in teaspoonful doses, is used in children's colic to relieve the hiccoughs. Occasional use of the decoction by mothers is thought to promote the secretion of milk.

Peppermint.—Peppermint water is given in doses of a teaspoonful to a wineglassful; oil of peppermint, one to five drops, and spirits of peppermint, ten drops to a teaspoonful. In neuralgia oil of peppermint may be painted over the painful spot. It may also be used for rheumatism and chronic gout. In the colic of children the spirits of peppermint in hot water is a good household remedy. A warm infusion of mint, taken frequently in teaspoonful dose's, is useful for the pains caused by gases in the intestines. A cloth, saturated in a teacup of water to which a teaspoonful of essence of peppermint has been added, applied to head and temples, gives relief from headache.

Mezereon (Laurel).—An ointment is made from the fluid extract of the bark (twenty-five parts), lard (eighty parts) and yellow wax (twelve parts). This ointment is used as an irritant to keep up discharges from ulcers and blistered surfaces. Mezereon bark has been successfully used to relieve toothache.

Common Black Briony.—The root is dried, and half an ounce of it with a pint of boiling water made into an infusion which is given in doses of a wineglassful three or four times a day. It may be given for dropsy and inflammation of the joints. It is an active purgative, causing large, watery stools.

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Manner of Using.—Two or three drops may be taken internally, best given with a powder of bismuth. Locally it is used in solutions of various strength, the usual being 5 per cent.

CITRIC ACID (Acidum Citricum).

Definition.—Citric acid occurs in the form of colorless crystals. It is obtained from lemon or lime juice and has a sour taste.

Property.—It acts favorably upon the liver in cases of inactivity. By stimulating the glandular secretion of the intestinal tract it improves digestion and nutrition.

Use.—The use of citric acid in the treatment of scurvy is well known and cannot be superseded by any remedy at present under our command, except fresh lemon juice itself. In fevers a drink make[sic] of citric acid is very grateful.

Manner of Using.—The best form for administration is the syrup of citric acid, which may be given in doses from a teaspoonful to a tablespoonful.

GALLIC ACID (Acidum Gallicum).

Definition.—Gallic acid may be obtained from tannic acid, which is found in the galls upon the oak tree. These galls or nodes are lumps caused by insects. Gallic acid is in the form of long needles.

Property.—Gallic acid, like tannic acid, is astringent, but not so powerful as tannic acid.

Manner of Using.—When prompt action is desired it should be used in powder. It is given also in other forms, such as pills, and so forth.

LACTIC ACID (Acidum Lacticum).

Definition.—Lactic acid is a colorless syrupy liquid having an acid taste. It is obtained from sour milk.

Use.—As this acid is found in the stomach during the first part of digestion, changes in the amount present cause forms of dyspepsia. When in excess or when it is absent dyspepsia in one form results. Its use in cases of deficiency added to that of pepsin, is followed by beneficial results. Locally it is a mild caustic, and is applied to warts and ulcers, by rubbing it on, with the intent of destroying them.

TANNIC ACID (Acidum Tannicum).

Definition.—Tannic acid occurs in the form of pale yellow scales.

Use.—The chief effect of tannic acid is that of an astringent contracting the tissues and checking secretion. It is used as a chemical antidote in cases of poisoning.

Manner of Using.—As an antidote it is used in powder form, twenty grains being the amount usually given,

TARTARIC ACID (Acidum Tartaricum).

Definition.—Tartaric acid appears as colorless crystals. It is obtained by the decomposition of cream of tartar found in old wine casks.

Use.—This acid is one of the constituents of a Seidlitz powder, which is laxative in its effect. Rochelle salt, also laxative, is potassium and sodium tartrate.

Manner of Using.—The acid or its salts are used in solution in quantities to suit.


Definition.—Aconite is the root of a plant growing in Europe. The root is conical in shape, two or three inches long, and closely resembles horseradish. When slowly chewed it produces a sensation of warmth slowly followed by numbness.

Use.—Aconite is sedative in its effects, and in accordance with this property it is employed locally in neuralgia. It is used also in cases of vomiting. Its principal action is upon the circulation, its effect being to slow the pulse.

Manner of Using.—The tincture of aconite is the preparation usually taken internally. The dose is very small, and even then poisonous symptoms are prone to develop.

LARD (Adeps).

Definition.—Lard is prepared from the fat of the abdomen of the hog. It is washed with water, melted and strained.

Use.—Care must be taken that the lard used does not become rancid. By the addition of benzoin the lard is prevented from undergoing this change. As an application for burns lard may be used as follows: Wash the lard, beat up with an equal quantity of lime water, and add a few drops of oil of bitter almond or carbolic acid. Lard softens and removes scabs.

Manner of Using.—For medicinal purposes the form of lard used is known as benzoinated lard.

ETHER (AEther)

Definition.—Ether is a clear, colorless liquid having its own peculiar odor and a sweetish taste. It is very inflammable, and its vapor mixed with air and ignited explodes.

Use.—When ether is poured upon the skin it produces a sensation of cold from its rapid evaporation. The part may be frozen and at this time a small operation, such as the opening of an abscess, may be performed. Taken internally ether is a stimulant to the heart. Its well-known effects in surgery, producing the state known as anesthesia, depend upon the action of the drug upon the brain and spinal cord. It was first used in surgery by Dr. Warren in 1846 at the Massachusetts General Hospital.

Manner of Using.—To produce loss of consciousness the vapor is inhaled, administered with safety only by a physician. For local use the vapor is locally applied.


Definition.—Alcohol is a transparent, colorless liquid obtained from the distillation of fermented saccharine material. For use in medicine, whiskey should be at least two years old and wine at least four years old. Wine is made by fermentation without distillation. Red wine differs from white wine in that in the production of the former the skins of the grape are used. Malt liquors—ale, beer, porter, are produced by fermentation of malt and hops and contain nutritive material.

Use.—When taken internally in small amounts and at meal-time the effect of alcohol is to stimulate the glands of the stomach to greater secretion. The presence of alcohol in the stomach, however, retards digestion, so that if much be taken it is a detriment rather than an advantage.

As a result of the long-continued use of alcohol changes take place in the coats of the stomach. The inner lining of the stomach loses its delicacy and becomes thickened. It can no longer secrete as formerly, and indigestion results. Upon the heart and circulation alcohol is a decided stimulant. It strengthens the heart, it enlarges or dilates the blood-vessels and hence the flushed face of the one addicted to alcohol. Alcohol by its stimulant action enables the system to pass through great strains, but if its use is prolonged beyond the period of actual need it is followed by its harmful effects. These latter manifest themselves by changes in the stomach, liver and kidneys and blood-vessels, and consist essentially of a hardening of these organs, rendering their functions imperfect. Alcohol does not increase the heat of the body, as some suppose. By actual experiment it is found that by dilatation of the capillaries it leads to a loss of heat. It is found, for instance, that those explorers in the Arctic region who avoid alcohol can better endure the trials of those regions than those who indulge.

Manner of Using.—A discussion of this portion scarcely seems necessary. Much depends upon the person. There are many persons who cannot take even the malt liquors, which contain but from three to five per cent. of alcohol. On the other hand, we have abundant examples of men who have indulged in alcohol and yet whose health seems not to be greatly impaired by such indulgence. From the physical standpoint alone it may be said that people, especially young people, do not need alcohol in any form. Their system does not require it. In disease its benefits are undoubted, and, it may be added, are greatest to those to whose system it is a stranger.


Definition.—Aletris is a plant the leaves of which spread upon the ground in the form of a star. The root is medicinal.

Use.—In small amounts it acts as a bitter tonic, improving the appetite and opening the bowels. It is useful in colic; hence one of its names, colic root.

Manner of Using.—The powder may be used as a powder or it may be taken in solution.

GARLIC (Allium).

(See Plate VI.)


Definition.—Garlic is the dried bulb of the allium sativum, a native of Asia and Egypt, but now naturalized in Europe and America. It resembles the onion and leek.

Use.—When added to a cough mixture garlic aids in the expectoration of secretion. For this latter purpose it is especially valuable in the case of children. Taken internally it is also a remedy against scurvy, hence called an antiscorbutic. Applied locally in the form of a poultice to the abdomen it relieves infantile intestinal colic.

Manner of Using.—The odor is quite offensive, and some will prefer other measures on this account. The preparation for internal use is known as the syrup of garlic, which may be used in a dose from ten drops to a teaspoonful.

ONION (Allium Cepa).

Definition.—The onion represents a bulb and is cultivated everywhere.

Use.—In small quantity onion promotes digestion, but experiments by Pilaki and Popoff seem to show that large quantities are harmful by neutralizing the gastric juice. Onions act beneficially upon the liver, increasing the secretion of the bile. Like garlic, it acts as an anti-scorbutic.

Manner of Using.—For internal use, as in colds and croups, a syrup is employed, of which from one to four teaspoonfuls may be taken.

ALOES (Aloe).

Use.—The dry juice is medicinal and one of the best laxatives for promoting and righting the action of the colon or large intestine. It excites the circulation of the blood in the organs of the pelvis, and is invaluable in promoting the menstrual flow—in this case it is generally combined with iron and myrrh. It is used for chronic costiveness, but those that suffer from piles should not take it. By reason of its tendency to increase the menstrual flow it ought not to be used during menstruation, especially by those having naturally an abundant flow. It should be avoided during the period of pregnancy. The dose is from five to fifteen grains, generally in pills, combined with other drugs.


Definition.—Marshmallow represents a root. It contains a substance called asparagin, upon which its virtues depend.

Use.—Asparagin renders the drug useful as a means of increasing the flow of the urine. Combined with medicinal lard althea makes an effective dressing in skin diseases. It has been employed also in cough mixtures.

Manner of Using.—The syrup is taken internally. For making a poultice the powdered root may be used.

ALMOND (Amygdala).

Definition.—There are two varieties of almond—the bitter almond and the sweet almond.

Use.—There are two oils of almond: one, the oil of bitter almond, is used in minute doses; the other, known as the expressed oil of almond, may he used in large doses, i. e., as high as a tablespoonful. It is quite important that these two oils should not be confused. Expressed oil of almond and mixture of almond are bland and soothing for local application.

Manner of Using.—Locally or internally, as already indicated.

STARCH (Amylum).

Definition.—Starch is a fine white powder, and is obtained from the seed of the zea mays. It forms a large part of rice, wheat and barley.

Use.—When boiling water is added to starch a very convenient poultice is furnished for local inflammations. Starch, when mixed with water, is a convenient antidote to most corrosive poisons, as it is usually close at hand or can be readily obtained.

Manner of Using.—Starch may be used locally or internally. It may also be used as the basis for an enema to be injected in the bowels.

ANISE (Anisum).

The virtues of this drug depend upon the warming effect when taken into the stomach. As it has a pleasant odor and taste, it is much used in cases of colic in young children.

CHAMOMILE (Anthemis).

Definition.—The flower heads of anthemis nobilis are collected from the cultivated plant. The oil is the active principle.

Use.—The activity of the plant depends upon the presence of the oil. The action of the oil is to act as a sedative to the nervous system; hence its use in checking reflex cough. It also favors free perspiration and free kidney action.

Manner of Using.—Make a drink as follows: Pour a pint of boiling water over an ounce each of chamomile flowers and the leaves and flowering tops of boneset; one-half of this amount is a dose. If the whole amount be taken, emesis or vomiting will be produced, and this will at times be the action desired.


Definition.—The preparations of arnica are obtained from the arnica flowers and arnica root. The flowers are orange-yellow, dish-shaped, with rays.

Use.—Arnica is used in domestic practice, but very little by physicians. The tincture is usually employed in cases of sprains, bruises and for rheumatic pains. Taken internally, in small doses, it produces a sensation of warmth over the body and increases the secretions.

ASAFETIDA (Asafoetida).

Use.—The dry juice of this plant is a powerful stimulant in many nervous affections, particularly in women. Its most frequent use is in the treatment of hysteria. The ordinary dose is from five to ten grains. From fifteen to twenty drops of the tincture may be given as a dose.

MALE FERN (Aspidium).

Definition.—Aspidium is the rhizome of plants found in almost every part of the world. The rhizome has a slight odor and a bitter taste.

Use.—Male fern is used in the expulsion of tape worm. It probably kills the worms in addition to expelling them.

Manner of Using.—When it is suspected or known that a person has a tape worm the following treatment should be carried out. The person should either take no food at all for a day or two or the diet should consist of milk only. The drug should then be given in some agreeable form. It may be given in milk or mucilage. A purgative should follow the use of male fern.

ORANGE (Orantium).

Definition.—The orange represents the fruit of small trees which grow in warm regions of the Eastern and Western Hemispheres. There are two forms, the sweet orange and the bitter orange.

Use.—Like the juice of the lemon, orange juice may be taken in water as a cool drink, and is grateful particularly during the course of fevers. The different preparations of orange are pleasant as flavors. The preparation known as the elixir of orange is an agreeable vehicle for other remedies.

OATS (Avena).

Avena is the fruit of the avena sativa and is used as food in the form of oatmeal, gruel or porridge. It is a highly nutritious food and should be eaten with butter or cream. Skin eruptions, such as eczema, have been attributed to the use of oatmeal. Change of diet in these cases produces a cure for the eczema.


(See Plate XII.)

BENZINE (Benzinum).

Definition.—Benzine represents a purified distillate from American petroleum. It is a clear, colorless, diffusible liquid. Its vapors, when mixed with the air, are explosive; hence it should be kept in a cool place remote from light or flame.

Use.—Benzine is not used internally in medicine. Externally benzine is used as a counter-irritant. It may be applied by rubbing, or upon a flannel cloth.

BENZOIN (Benzoinum).

Definition.—Benzoin is a gum resin obtained by incisions made into the bark of a tree growing in the East Indies. It occurs in large masses.

Use.—The medicinal preparation of opium known as paregoric contains some benzoin. The tincture of benzoin is useful as an expectorant. The compound tincture is useful for local application as a protectant to excoriated surfaces. Benzoin prevents fat from becoming rancid.

BERGAMOT (Bergamia).

Bergamot is a volatile from the citrus bergamia. On account of its odor, bergamot is valuable in perfumery. It is not used in medicine.

BUCHU (Buchu).

Use.—This. is one of the best known remedies to soothe the irritation of the urinary organs. It has been used for catarrh of the bladder and in cases of pain in urinating. Best results are obtained from the infusion made from one ounce of the leaves in two pints of boiling water. Two or three soup-spoonfuls four or five times a day. There is also an extract, which dose is from a half to one teaspoonful.

CAFFEINE (Caffeina).

Definition.—Caffeine is prepared from the dried leaves of the thea sineusis or from the dried seeds of coffea arabica. It occurs also in other plants. It exists in the kola nut of Africa. Caffeine is in the form of colorless silky crystals.

Use.—Caffeine stimulates the nervous system. It quickens the intellect and causes sleeplessness. It causes an increase in the flow of the urine. It is used to stimulate the heart, to increase the flow of urine, and combined with other remedies it is of value in relieving headache of nervous origin.

Manner of Using.—The preparation used is known as citrated caffeine. It is given in powder form.


Calamus is used as a substitute for tobacco by those habitual to the weed. It is a constituent of various bitters used to stimulate and promote the appetite.

TEA (Camellia).

Definition.—This represents an infusion made from the dried leaves of the Chinese tea plant or Camellia Thea. It contains a substance known as theine.

Use.—Tea is a stimulant removing a sense of fatigue. While this is the ordinary effect of the use of tea there are some, particularly those of a nervous temperament, who cannot partake of it without ill effects.

CAMPHOR (Camphora).

Use.—It is extracted from a tree in India, and is a sedative for many disturbances of the nervous system, especially in hysterical affections of women. Often used to diminish the excitement in fevers. The doses of the tincture vary between ten and thirty drops.

INDIAN HEMP (Cannabis Indica).

Definition.—Indian hemp is obtained from the flowering tops of the female plant of the cannabis sativa grown in the East Indies. There is a confection known as haschish or gunjah.

Use.—This drug is much used in Eastern countries and is a frequent cause of insanity in these countries. It is taken for the pleasant mental effect produced, though this is but temporary. The first stage is accompanied by exhilaration during which the imagination is actively engaged. The imagination brings up images of its own creation. After a time the pleasant effects are followed by unpleasant and disagreeable effects. Ideas of time and space are perverted. Frequent indulgence in the drug brings about permanent mental change. An impulse to kill has been known to follow the abuse of the drug. For medicinal purposes cannabis is used to quiet spasms and produce mental quietude. In accordance with this use it is employed in treating coughs and the restlessness and delirium of certain diseases. It has been used with benefit in neuralgia.

Manner of Using.—The tincture is the preparation usually employed, though it should never be taken without a physician.

SPANISH FLIES (Cantharis Cantharides).

Definition.—Spanish flies represent the dried body of a beetle found in the South of Europe, especially in Spain.

Use.—Internally cantharides is a stimulant to the genito-urinary tract and externally it is employed as a counter-irritant. The tincture of cantharides combined with other remedies is often used in the treatment of alopecia or baldness.

Manner of Using.—When a blister is employed the part may be painted with cantharidal collodion or it may be covered with a rag spread with the cerate. Cantharides requires from six to ten hours to draw a blister, but it is better to remove the drug at the end of four or five hours.


Definition.—Capsicum represents the dried fruit of a plant which grows in the East Indies.

Use.—Taken internally in moderate amount pepper stimulates the secretions and promotes the appetite and digestion. It also assists in the expulsion of flatus. In large amounts it would cause pains in the abdomen and vomiting. After a drinking debauch a few drops with milk or other light food brings back the appetite. It is useful in constipation.

Manner of Using.—The tincture is used in five- to ten-drop doses.

CARDAMON (Cardamon).

This drug represents a fruit. It is an agreeable vehicle for disguising the taste of other drugs and it also produces a sensation of warmth in the stomach.


Definition.—Cascara is the dried bark of the rhamnus purshiana, growing On the Pacific coast.

Use.—Its exclusive use is that of a laxative. In chronic constipation it is an excellent remedy.

Manner of Using.—Twenty drops of the fluid extract may be taken after each meal, or half a drachm; that is, half a teaspoonful may be taken at bedtime.

WAX (Cera).

Wax is a concrete substance prepared by the apis mellifica. It forms the honeycomb. It is used to give consistency to ointments and suppositories.


Definition.—Chenopodium is the fruit of a plant growing in North America and Europe. Its properties are due to the presence of a peculiar volatile oil.

Use.—The principal use of the drug is as a vermifuge against the round worms. In Chili[sic] it is valued as an aid to digestion.

Manner of Using.—The dose is ten drops in capsule or emulsion three times a day. On the following day castor oil should be given.

CHLORAL (Chloral).

Definition.—Chloral is a colorless liquid formed by the action of chlorine on alcohol. With water chloral forms a crystallizable compound. Chloral should be kept in well-stoppered bottles as the crystals volatilize slowly.

Use.—Taken internally chloral has a sedative influence on the brain and spinal cord. In cases of restlessness and delirium it produces a quieting influence on the brain and induces sleep. In spasm and convulsion it alleviates this condition. It influences the heart adversely, and in cases of weak or diseased heart its use is attended with danger.

Manner of Using.—It is best given well diluted in some agreeable syrup. It should not be taken without the advice of a physician.

CHLOROFORM (Chloroformum).

Chloroform is a heavy liquid made by the action of chlorine on alcohol. It is used in the same class of cases as ether but is preferred to ether in children and old persons on account of the irritation of the bronchial tubes produced by either in the very young or very old.


Definition.—Cimicifuga represents the rootlets of the plant.

Use.—Upon the nervous system it acts as a sedative. It is claimed that it is of value in rheumatic affections of the muscles.

Manner of Using.—A preparation known as the fluid extract is usually employed and taken in small and repeated doses. A tea of the root, drunk freely, is used in rheumatic affections.


Uses.—This drug has somewhat lost its former popularity, being replaced by quinine and other alcaloids obtained from the same bark. These alcaloids are the best vegetable tonic, as also the surest remedies in malaria. Quinine is also much used in fevers and inflammations. Many have a certain objection to this drug because an excess causes headache, noise in the ears and other disagreeable symptoms. These are, however, temporary, and should not stand in the way of a careful use of the remedy.

COCA (Erythroxylon).

Definition.—Coca leaves are taken from a small tree in Peru and Bolivia. The principal constituent of the leaves is cocaine.

Use.—The value of coca lies in cocaine. Cocaine is widely used locally for the relief of pain. It may be applied for the performance of an operation when for any reason it is not desirable to give a general anesthetic like ether or chloroform.


Cochineal is derived from the crushed and dried bodies of the females of coccus cacti. It yields a very brilliant red coloring matter from which carmine is obtained. Cochineal has but little value in medicine in comparison with its use in the arts as a coloring agent.

COFFEE (Coffea).

Definition.—Coffee is the seed or berry of the coffee Arabica. It is one of the sources of caffeine.

Use.—Coffee is a stimulant to the nervous system. It increases the capacity for intellectual effort. When taken to excess it is frequently the cause of headaches.


Definition.—Colchicum represents the corm and seed of a plant.

Use.—The chief use of colchicum is internally in the treatment of rheumatism.

HEMLOCK (Conium).

(See Plate XIV.)

LILY OF THE VALLEY (Convallaria).

(See Plate IX.)

COPAIBA (Copaiba).

Use.—This balsam comes from a tree in South America. Its principal use is relieving the irritation in inflammations of the urinary channels especially in gonorrhea.

CREOSOTE (Creosotum).

Definition.—Creosote is obtained from the distillation of wood tar. The best preparation is made from beechwood and is known as beechwood creosote. Creosote is a yellow oily liquid having a smoky odor.

Use.—Creosote is an antiseptic and local anesthetic. Internally also it is an antiseptic and is used in diarrhoea and dysentery. In consumption its use is often followed by a diminution of all the symptoms and general improvement.

Manner of Using.—It may be given internally in milk, cod-liver oil or wine. It may also be given in capsules.

FOXGLOVE (Digitalis).

(See Plate XIII.)

ERGOT OF RYE (Ergota).

Definition.—Ergot is the compact spawn of a parasitic fungus investing the rye.

Use.—The chief action of ergot is upon the parturient uterus, which it contracts. It assists nature.

Manner of Using.—The fluid extract is the preparation most often employed.

BLUE-GUM TREE (Eucalyptus—Australian).

Definition.—The drug eucalyptus is derived from the leaves of a tree native to Australia, but now cultivated in many countries. It has the property of absorbing and evaporating large quantities. It is readily cultivated in marshy ground, and when so cultivated it absorbs the moisture and renders malarious districts healthy.

Use.—Its place in malaria is inferior to that of quinine.

Manner of Using.—It is used in the form of the oil and and the fluid extract.

NUTGALL, (Galla).

(See Gallic Acid.)


Definition.—Wintergreen represents the leaves of a small plant growing in North America.

Use.—Taken internally the oil is antiseptic and antipyretic. This latter refers to its property of reducing the temperature. It is used In the treatment of articular or inflammatory rheumatism. Locally the oil combined with olive oil makes a good application for rheumatic pains.

Manner of Using.—The oil is used internally and locally.

CRANESBILL (Geranium).

(See Plate XV.)

GLYCERINE (Glycerinum).

Definition.—Glycerine is a transparent substance obtained by the decomposition of fats or fixed oils. It is a constituent of the waste in the process of the making of soap. It is now prepared in large quantities for commercial purposes.

Use.—Taken internally glycerine is in part absorbed or oxidized and so acts partly as a food. If a large amount, as a tablespoonful or two be taken, it acts as a laxative. Externally applied it acts as an emollient. In the care and treatment of bed sores it is highly useful. The parts should be bathed twice daily with warm water and gently rubbed with glycerine.

LICORICE (Glycyrrhiza).

(See Plate XI.)

PENNYROYAL (Hedeoma-Hedeoma).

(See Plate VIII.)

HOPS (Humulus).

(See Plate V.)

IPECAC (Ipecacuanha).

Definition.—Ipecac is the dried root of a plant which is native in Brazil.

Use.—Ipecac is used as an emetic and expectorant. It enters as an ingredient in cough preparations to soften the expectoration of phlegm. It has been used in heavy doses for dysentery.

FLAXSEED (Linum-Linseed).

(See Plate X.)

MALT (Maltum).

Definition.—Malt is the seed of hordeum distichum, caused to enter the first stage of germination by artificial means and dried. Extract of malt is made with water at a moderate heat and evaporated to the consistency of thick honey.

Use.—Extract of malt is valuable as a food. It is easily assimilated.

Manner of Using.—Extract of malt may be taken alone or it may be taken in conjunction with cod-liver oil, mixing it with an equal quantity of cod-liver oil.

HONEY (Mel).

Definition.—Honey is a saccharine secretion deposited in the honeycomb by the honey-bee, the apis mellifica. The best honey is known as virgin honey. It is obtained by incising recent combs and straining. Clarified honey is made by heating honey, removing the frothy scum and straining. Other products made by the aid of heat are of a darker color and are less pure.

Use.—Honey is to some slight extent a laxative. It is a pleasant, sweet article of food.

COD-LIVER OIL (Morrhuae Oleum).

Definition.—Cod-liver oil is a thin, yellow, oily liquid, having a fishy odor and taste. It is obtained from the fresh livers of the cod.

Use.—Cod-liver oil is an easily digestible food. In most cases of poor nutrition it is of value.

Manner of Using.—Cod-liver oil should not be taken directly after a meal. It should be taken about three hours after a meal, when gastric digestion is about complete, from the fact that oil is digested not in the stomach but in the intestine.

NUTMEG (Myristica).

Definition.—Nutmeg is the seed of a tree growing in the East Indies, but cultivated also in the West Indies and in South America.

Use.—Internally small doses favor digestion by stimulating the secretion of the gastric juice. It is used to disguise the taste of unpleasant mixtures and as a flavor.

Manner of Using.—The oil or the spirits may be used.

MYRRH (Myrrha).

Definition.—Myrrh is a resinous exudation obtained from a tree. It appears as brownish-red masses.

Use.—Myrrh is slightly astringent and stimulant locally, hence its use as a mouth wash. Combined with other remedies it is sometimes employed as a cough medicine.

POISON NUT (Nux Vomica).

Definition.—Nux vomica is the seed of the strychnos nux vomica of East Indies. The seeds are disk-shaped, about an inch in diameter, and covered with silky hairs.

Use.—Nux vomica is one of our best tonics, as also one of the most dangerous poisons. These properties principally belong to strychnine, an alkaloid. It is also a good bitter tonic, which property is especially efficacious in the nervous system. It is often used in the treatment of dyspepsia.

Manner of Using.—The tincture of nux vomica is the preparation usually employed. Strychnine is used advisedly.


Definition.—Olive oil is a yellowish oily liquid, having a slight odor and a bland, oleaginous taste.

Use.—Taken internally olive oil is used in the treatment of biliary colic, five or six ounces being the dose. It acts by promoting the flow of bile. Externally the oil is used as an emollient. It is employed in the treatment of burns and in eruptive diseases inunctions of the oil are useful in allaying irritation and preventing the spread of the disease through or by means of the cast-off epidermis. Olive oil is extremely useful as an enema, the oil being used warm for the injection.

OPIUM (Opium).

(See Plate VIII.)


Use.—Extensively used in expelling the tapeworm from the intestines. In order to obtain this object the patient, during the twenty four hours, should take no other food but the seeds and milk, partaking abundantly of both whenever hungry. After the twenty-four hours a dose of castor oil should be taken.

PEPSIN (Pepsinum).

Definition.—Pepsin is one of the elements of the gastric juice. In cases of deficiency of this element there is presented one form of dyspepsia. The object, then, is to assist nature by replacing the pepsin. We therefore look to the lower animals for assistance and select the hog, calf or the sheep. The acid mucous secretion is scraped from the surface of the stomach, spread on a glass and dried in scales. Saccharated pepsin is pepsin obtained from the gastric mucous membrane of the hog mixed with sugar of milk. It is a white powder of a disagreeable odor and taste. A solution of this is made and forms liquor pepsin.

Manner of Using.—The powder may be used, or a rather pleasant liquid preparation called the wine of pepsin may be used.

CALABAR BEAN (Physostigma).

Definition.—Physostigma is the seed of the physostigma venanosum, growing in Western Africa, along the River Niger.

Use.—The chief action of the drug is to depress the spinal cord, and in accordance with this action it is used to produce quietude in cases of convulsion, as from strychnine poison, from tetanus, and so forth.

ALLSPICE (Pimenta).

Definition.—Allspice represents a fruit.

Use.—It is employed chiefly to promote appetite and digestion. It may be used to disguise the taste of unpalatable drugs and is one of the ingredients of spice plasters.

Manner of Using.—Internally, the oil is the preparation used in drop doses.


Definition.—Pepper is the unripe fruit of the piper nigra of India.

Use.—Pepper is a condiment. It is stimulating to the digestive system and to the circulation. Pepper externally is an irritant.

MAY APPLE (Podophyllum).

Podophyllum is a slow cathartic acting upon the liver and the intestinal glands. On account of the smallness of the dose and the slight taste podophyllum is much used in the treatment of constipation of children. A grain may be dissolved in the spirit of ginger and a drop or two given on sugar.

RHUBARB (Rheum).

Definition.—Rhubarb represents the root of a plant native in Asia.

Use.—In moderate doses rhubarb acts as a purgative and stomachic. In chronic constipation it is an excellent remedy. It is useful in the summer diarrhoea of children.

Manner of Using.—The aromatic syrup is a favorite method of administration. It may be given also in the form of pills.

CASTOR OIL (Ricini Oleum).

Definition.—Castor oil is a fixed oil expressed from a seed. It is a pale-yellow liquid, having a faint odor.

Use.—Castor oil is a slow purgative, producing copious liquid stools. It stimulates the bowels.

Manner of Using.—The dose for an adult is half to one ounce; for a child, one to two drachms.

SUGAR (Saccharum).

Definition.—Sugar is a product of the sugar-cane of sub-tropical countries.

Use.—Syrup which is used as a vehicle for the administration of drugs consists of 85 per cent. of sugar. Sugar of milk is a peculiar crystalline sugar obtained from the whey of cow's milk by evaporation and purified by recrystallization. It is used in pharmacy.

SARSAPARILLA (Sarsaparilla).

Definition.—Sarsaparilla represents a root from Mexico, Central America and Brazil.

Use.—Sarsaparilla is an alterative. It is also a vehicle to disguise the taste of unpleasant drugs.


Use.—A violent cathartic, with watery stools, having the disadvantage that it is apt to produce strong colic. Generally given with some aromatic. The most pleasant form is the preparation known under the name of prepared licorice powder.

WHITE MUSTARD (Sinapis Alba).

BLACK MUSTARD (Sinapis Nigra).

(See Plate IV.)

TOBACCO (Tabacum).

Definition.—The leaves of the tobacco plant represent the part used. The tobacco plant is indigenous to the Southern portions of this country. It was carried to Lisbon by the Spaniards and from there to France by Nicot in 1560.

Use.—When persons not accustomed to tobacco indulge in it emesis or vomiting, with great muscular relaxation, results. It is a stimulant to the salivary and intestinal secretions. Nicotine is a rapidly acting poison resembling hydrocyanic acid in its fatal effects. The power of increasing secretions along the alimentary canal, the stimulation of peristalsis and the function of the kidney are proper arguments in favor of moderate use of tobacco.

TURPENTINE (Terebinthina).

Definition.—Turpentine is a concrete oleoresin obtained from the pine tree.

Use.—Generally used to stop bleeding at the nose, the stomach, the intestines and the bladder. It is sometimes used in combination with other remedies for various intestinal troubles. Partially, turpentine is used with the same objects as mustard, that is to say, to produce irritation of the skin. A piece of flannel, after being folded and saturated in hot water and wrung, is sprinkled with the spirits of turpentine.

VALERIAN (Valeriana).

(See Plate XIII.)

GINGER (Zingiber).

Ginger comes from various sources, but Jamaica ginger is preferred for culinary purposes, as it has the best flavor. Ginger increases the secretions of the intestinal tract and acts as a carminative. It is used in various preparations to disguise the unpleasant taste.

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