Uses of Adrenalin Chloride.—Adrenalin Chloride is the most powerful known astringent, hemostatic and cardiac stimulant. Its physiological activity is amazing. Its effects are prompt and practically instantaneous. The uses to which it can be put in medicine are almost unlimited. In controlling hemorrhage from the nose, stomach, bladder, urethra and uterus, it is without an equal. In the surgical treatment of diseases of the eye, ear, nose and throat, it provides a bloodless field for operation. As a stimulant to the heart, when that organ is depressed by anesthetics or otherwise, it is remarkably effective.

Cures Bronchitis and Asthma.—In the first stages of acute bronchitis no remedy is as likely to check or limit the inflammation as the inhaled spray of Adrenalin Chloride. The catarrh of bronchial asthma is perceptibly lessened by spraying a solution of Adrenalin into the larynx.

For Colds and Nose-Bleed.—In such diseases, and diphtheria and measles, in which the throat and nasal cavities are involved, applications of Adrenalin solution prove quite beneficial, and aid in limiting the local inflammatory tendencies. In tonsillar hypertrophy, or enlargement, it is an excellent plan to swab the enlarged glands regularly. Coryza (cold in the head) can be arrested in many cases if treated at the outset, after the attack has become established the regular application of the solution will hasten recovery. In quinsy the tonsils should be painted instead of sprayed, to prevent the formation of follicular abscesses. Persistent epistaxis (nose-bleed) and hemoptysis (spitting of blood) are readily controlled by this new remedy.

Importance in Nasal Work.—In nasal work it is of great use in swelling and hypertrophy of the mucous membrane and intranasal operations where a bloodless field is important. Of its value in the treatment of a stuffy nose from a cold in the head we have had the most pleasant personal experience, the relief being rapid and lasting. Patients can treat such cases themselves by steeping a bit of wool in the solution, twisting the wool on the end of a match, so that the wool projects well beyond the end of the wood, and inserting the plug gently and gradually into the nostril. The application will smart for perhaps a minute, but after that the mucous membrane will shrink, and the wool slips in quite readily.

In Hay Fever.—In hay fever Adrenalin gives most brilliant results. The question has long been, "What will we do for the hay fever patients?" The question found answer for a certain class of patients—the leisure class, those with money and time to travel. But only the few are thus situated, and hay fever is no respecter of person or pockets. The inexorable law of necessity compels the average sufferer from hay fever to remain at the post of duty. He must fight it out there, and leave the question open, "What will we do for him?"

The Hay Fever Problem.—This problem presents itself every year. Sooner or later every physician is confronted with it. If he has solved it, the trouble has been it wouldn't stay solved. What was yesterday thought to be a happy remedy turned out to-day to be a doubtful experiment, or, at best, but a temporary relief, and so experiments were constantly leading to disappointments.

A Victory for Adrenalin.—A notable exception to the above seems to have been found in Adrenalin Chloride. It is, in my experience, almost a specific for the symptoms of hay fever, and a remedy to safely and surely restore the overdistended condition of the nasal erectile tissue. While the use of the remedy is yet so young, it may be regarded by some as premature to sound its praises too highly, but we regard it as having already passed its experimental stages, and as no longer containing seeds of disappointment. It is a fact beyond question that it in some way marvelously controls the vaso-motor nerves of the nose; that there comes about by its use a marked reduction in the size of the turbinate bodies, that there is prompt lessening of irritability and almost complete cessation of the coryza (cold) and sneezing; that the nasal obstruction disappears, natural breathing is resumed, and the condition of distress and unrest gives way to one of comfort; that the improvement in the conjunctival condition can be observed in less than forty-eight—sometimes in twenty-four—hours; and that its continued administration finally effects the much desired cure.

Application of the Remedy.—A good way to treat hay fever with Adrenalin is to spray it into the nose with a small atomizer, or it may be applied on a pledge of cotton. One or two applications of either way daily usually afford complete relief.

Adrenalin in Dentistry.—Adrenalin Chloride is favorably used to stop hemorrhage after the extraction of teeth, or during oral operations. It is also favorably indicated as an application to spongy gums, and to control the bleeding which frequently occurs in the fitting of crowns.

Physiological Effect.—Regarding the physiological effect of Adrenalin, it controls hemorrhage from all mucous membranes, even in "bleeders." Applied locally it is one of the best hemostatics known in uterine hemorrhage. It causes contraction of the arterioles, rendering the parts it affects bloodless. Mucous membranes are blanched when it is applied. This is particularly noticeable when it is instilled into the eye; there is an almost immediate whitening of the conjunctiva. Taken internally, it increases the blood pressure and retards the pulse rate. The heart muscle is directly stimulated by it as when digitalis is taken. It may be administered in the form of spray, varying from 1-10,000 to 1-1,000 in strength, or internally in doses of from 5 to 30 minims.


How it Acts.—The stimulant effects of Adrenalin upon the cardiac (heart) muscle is well marked. Unlike many heart stimulants, however, it does not induce a subsequent reactionary depression. While it is a prompt and reliable stimulant it is also a permanent systematic and nerve tonic. It serves to fortify the muscular and nervous systems and in this way serves to retain the heart-strength.

Study of the Heart.—To restore an affected heart to its normal condition, if possible, is to find the underlying causes and to treat them respectively according to the best means of modern medicine which are at command. When the heart is irregular, or when there is some disturbance of its rhythm at times, but we cannot find any evidence of heart disease, we designate the disturbance as a functional disorder due reflexly to some underlying constitutional disorder or organic disease. But whatever the form of disturbance Adrenalin seems to markedly tone the heart up, enabling it to perform its work much better and with greater ease. It has been known to restore heart action even after a suspension of several minutes.

Dose.—Adrenalin is most effective as a heart stimulant when given in tablet form. Five grains are administered at first, every two hours, day and night, until some giddiness or palpitation is observed. After this, the same dose may be given at longer periods—every three hours, then every six hours, and then three times daily.

Comparison of Virtues.—To my mind Adrenalin is a worthy successor of nitro-glycerine, strychnine or digitalis as a heart tonic. It gives greater tone. It does not act upon the nerve supply directly, yet gives tone to the heart muscle when needed. Unlike other heart tonics, it produces no effect on the normal heart or on a strong pulse of organic heart disease. While a small dose is effective, a large dose is not injurious. A weak pulse becomes stronger, an intermittent or irregular pulse is made regular by its use. A laboring heart with a high tension pulse is relieved and the pulse is softer after its use.

Angina Pectoris.—Attacks of angina pectoris (heart-pang) are promptly relieved by Adrenalin. In a few seconds, sometimes as few as ten, after its administration, the heart becomes regular in its action in every respect. This is also true in mitral regurgitation; the regurgitation murmur is considerably lessened in volume and less shrill, and the apex beat is more readily located. I have not seen a case in which it was administered for irregular pulse where its effects were not manifest in from five to ten minutes.


What it Is.—Formalin, or Formaldehyde, was discovered in 1890, and is now regarded as the first of antiseptics, possessing, as it does, the very highest germacidal properties. Its first rank is due to the fact that it is of absolutely neutral character, being neither acid nor alkali; wholly devoid of caustic or corrosive properties, and of toxicity (poison) to higher forms of life. The above cannot be said of any other antiseptic. If its vapors are inhaled, or even if it be swallowed, injury does not follow. Neither its vapors nor solution destroys nor blackens furniture or metallic articles.

Its Action.—In use it almost instantly penetrates rooms, flooring, crevices, carpets, clothing, in fact, every place likely to breed micro-organisms, and it promptly and surely destroys all bacteria infesting such places or things or that may be floating in the air.

Form in Use.—When used as a disinfectant Formaldehyde gas is the most powerful agent for the purpose known. It not only disinfects by killing germs, but it thoroughly deodorizes the air. Its pungent vapors may not be liked by the sick at first, but by judicious use of the generator deodorization of a sick-room can be carried on continuously, and the sick soon get used to the odor.

Value in Schools.—In schools Formaldehyde is the disinfectant par excellence, and it should be used daily to kill the germs which lead to dangerous epidemic diseases among children.

Excellence in the Home.—In the home its use is attended with the most beneficial results. The sympathy extended to neighboring families stricken with disease invites frequent visitation, and often these visitors carry away the germs of contagion and spread it wholesale. But not so if the sick-room or house be constantly disinfected with Formaldehyde gas.

How to Use It.—For popular use a two and one-half per cent. Formalin solution can be prepared by adding one and one-half tablespoonfuls of Formalin to a quart of water. This will prove effective for killing most disease germs. A solution of such strength may be made to saturate a cloth, which is then hung over the night-light or stove, so that the solution will evaporate slowly, care being taken to occasionally re-dip the cloth. This is invaluable in all cases of measles, diphtheria, scarlet fever, whooping-cough and affections of the respiratory organs, such as colds, catarrhs, and so forth.

For Blood Poisoning.—A swift and sure destroyer of infusorial life, preventing various fermentations, preserving animal tissues, killing or checking the growth of all the low forms of animal and vegetable life, Formaldehyde is found to be an effective preventer and destroyer of blood poisoning, no matter what the cause, but especially in those cases where the causes are traceable to peritonitis and puerperal affections. The usual mode of treatment is an injection into the veins of, say the arm, a one pint solution, and closely observing the result before repeating the operation..

In Other Diseases.—Formaldehyde is highly recommended for consumption, influenza, and in all zymotic diseases, and is especially valuable in the prevention and treatment of small-pox. In bronchitis, where a volatile is indicated. Formalin gives almost instant relief, by inhaling the vapors of a weak solution. Formalin of the strength of a one per cent. solution is free from irritating properties, while its essential volatile constituents give it a healing and penetrating power not possessed by a purely mineral antiseptic solution.


A New Urinary Antiseptic and Solvent, Latest Discovery.—The latest discovery for disinfection of the urinary tract is Ammonium Formaldehyde, commercially known as Cystogen.

Bright's Disease.—Cystogen in five-grain doses, every three or four hours, exerts a very beneficial influence in Bright's Disease, by soothing the kidneys and retarding the waste of albumen.

Gonorrhoea.—In gonorrhoea, acute or chronic, Cystogen restricts the area of infection and prevents reinfection.

Gout and Rheumatism.—In these diseases Cystogen facilitates the excretion of uric acid and effects cures. Taken in five-grain doses, four times a day, it produces a clear, non-irritating urine and relieves symptoms of uric acid poisoning.

Cystitis.—In cystitis (inflammation of the bladder), due to whatever cause, Cystogen, in five-grain doses, four times daily, affords a cure.

Wetting the Bed.—This troublesome habit in children may be overcome by very small doses of Cystogen, say, from one to two grains, dissolved in water, four times a day.

Old People.—Old people who suffer untold agonies from suppurative cystitis find a sure relief in Cystogen. Turbid urine is rendered clear and non-irritating. The secret of its success lies in the fact that it prevents the decomposition of urine in the bladder, kidneys and ureters.


A Most Remarkable Germicide, General Effects.—One of the latest additions to the Materia Medica, Acetozone is undoubtedly the most remarkable germicide ever discovered. It is apparently harmless. Its saturated aqueous solution may be taken inwardly in large quantities, and yet it is as powerful as a 1-1000 solution of bichloride of mercury. For this reason it is effective in the cure of diseases due to micro-organisms. As a general antiseptic it is superior to corrosive sublimate, hydrogen peroxide, carbolic acid, etc., in accidental or operative wounds marked by persistent pus formation.

In Typhoid.—The use of Acetozone in typhoid fever has been most encouraging. In a large number of typhoid cases treated the duration of the disease has been reduced to the normal cycle of fourteen days, the bowel complications were conspicuous by their absence, or, if present, were quickly overcome; there were no deaths and but few terminal expressions of the infection. The diet in these cases was milk, diluted with Acetozone solution. The Acetozone sterilized the intestinal canal and reduced the possibility of gaseous fermentation, thus preventing bowel distention, hemorrhages and perforation, and overcoming secondary infection by the typhoid organism.

Gonorrhoea.—-In this disease an aqueous solution of Acetozone is perfectly efficacious, and for the female form a specific.

Vaginal Irritation.—In this exasperating affliction a solution of Acetozone by means of the vaginal douche is followed by the most satisfactory results, especially when the treatment is supported by the use of tampons of absorbent cotton saturated with the solution.

In Other Diseases.—Acetozone, in aqueous solutions, has been found efficacious in tonsillitis and pharyngitis, also in tuberculous infection of the intestines. The solution, and also direct application of the crystals, is excellent in purulent inflammation of the middle ear. In dentistry concentrated Acetozone finds application as a packing for the canine teeth, and as a direct application in cases of infection and necrosis or gangrene of the jawbone. The saturated aqueous solution of Acetozone is harmless on mucous membrane, and has been used in affections of the eye, the only inconvenience being a temporary smarting sensation.

Dosage.—The usual dose, when taken inwardly, is five grains, three times daily.



Formula.—Nux-vomica, gentian, columba, quassia, prunus virginiana, pinus verticillatus, samaruba amara, spirsea tormentosa, cinchona, sumbul, aurantii cortex, sherry wine.

Whets the Appetite.—The above combination gives a new agent, called Apetol, which has power to increase the digestive secretions, and, consequently, the desire for food, almost instantly. Taken ten or fifteen minutes before a meal it gives a keen edge to the appetite and encourages the patient to continue its use.

Aids Digestion.—It stimulates secretion from the alimentary mucous membrane, promotes a flow of saliva and increases the production of gastric and intestinal juices. Its tonic effects are seen in the activity and amount of the glandular secretions of the stomach within a few minutes after a dose is taken. Not only is a greater amount of food digested, but there is absence of dyspeptic eructation, flatulency and epigastric pain. It increases the activity of the liver and conduces to a more abundant flow of its secretions.

Improved Nutrition.—As more food is taken, digested and assimilated, the blood is enriched and the nutrition of all the organs improved. It differs from the so-called stimulants in the respect that it does not call into sudden action forces already existent in the part, but increases power by nutrition. Its influence is permanent and is not followed by depression.

Restores Nerve Tone.—Healthy nervous function presupposes proper nutrition. Neurasthenia (nerve disease) is but a disorder of nutrition, with resulting cell-weakness and irritability. Apetol, by increasing appetite and digestive power, meets and removes the conditions which conduce to loss of nervous tone.

Menstrual and Other Pains.—For like reason Apetol is indicated for the relief of menstrual pains and after-labor pains, which are in reality attributable to nervous exhaustion. Many cases of nervous headache are similarly caused and markedly benefited by the like treatment. So with anemia, hysteria, melancholia and general pessimism.

Inebriety.—Apetol is an excellent stomachic tonic adapted to the treatment of gastric catarrh and morning vomiting of drunkards. The poor appetite, feeble digestion and nervousness which follow a sudden stopping of the drink habit may be removed by frequent doses of Apetol, which supplies the necessary nutritive pabulum.

Dosage.—The usual dosage in ordinary cases is a teaspoonful fifteen minutes before each meal.



What It Is.—-Phenalgin is a coal-tar product containing ammonia in a nascent state. The ammonia is liberated on entry into the stomach, and acts as a tonic stimulant.

A Sleep Producer.—As a hypnotic (sleep producer) and anodyne Phenalgin is never followed by symptoms of depression. It at first increases the heart action, but this gradually slows down. It is rapidly eliminated, and is the safest agent within medical reach.

Neuralgia and Rheumatism.—Its employment is suggested in neuralgia and rheumatism, also for the relief of pains in the pelvic region. In cases of child-birth it relaxes the circular muscular fibres and facilitates delivery. It is efficacious in dysmenorrhea (painful menstruation), migraine and suborbital neuralgia.

Fevers.—In fevers with fluctuating temperatures it has proved of great value, obviating the use of other sedatives, and securing for the patient the recuperative influence of healthful sleep. In that unrest, undue apprehension and headache which frequently follow excessive use of liquor it gives relief and conduces to sleep when taken in ten-grain doses, and in nausea it controls the attack when taken in one- or two-grain doses. It may be used in all fevers where quick action is desired, or where the condition of the heart prohibits the use of other drugs. In malaria, and when combined with quinine, it shortens the life of the disease.

Dosage.—From five to twenty grains, according to the need and condition of the patient.



What They Are.—The term Hydatid was long applied to every encysted tumor which contained an aqueous and transparent fluid. It is not quite clear that hydatids are really entozoa (a group of worms). They have been found in various parts of the body, sometimes in the uterus, occasioning signs similar to those of pregnancy, but being sooner or later expelled, the expulsion generally attended with more or less hemorrhage. In the womb they form a bladder-like substance filled with a yellowish fluid. Sometimes a bundle of them grow together like a bunch of grapes, some are elongated like beads, others are egg-shaped.

Size and Shape.—The echinococcus, or hydatids, the larvae of the tenia echinococcus or tape worm, is a common hydatid or entozom in the human subject, and may exist as a microscopic object or as a cyst many inches in diameter. They are found in the lungs, liver, abdominal cavity, pelvis and, in fact, all cellular tissue of the human body, and the bodies of all vertebrate animals. These cysts, of which the measles in swine are an example, were not formerly looked upon as of an animal nature.

Infection of Sheep.—Sheep, in particular, often become the subject of disease in which these hydatids are rapidly generated. When so affected they become sickly and droopy and suffer from abdominal dropsy, or rot. Wet seasons, variable temperature and watery pasturage are the causes to which this condition of rot in sheep, and consequently hydatids, are attributed.

Remedy.—For this distemper in sheep they must be removed to dry pasturage and treated with muriate of soda. For the hydatids, diuretics are required, and a favorite is fox-glove and turpentine. Brown-heather, elecampane and colts-foot are also popular. As a tonic some of the preparations of iron should be used.

Removal of Hydatids.—Hydatids may be removed (1) by direct expulsion from the body; (2) by invigorating the relaxed habit of the body and restoring to the absorbent system its lost power; (3) by exciting the absorbents to extraordinary action when the exercise of their natural function is inadequate. To accomplish these a dry abode should be selected, a nutritive diet chosen, and some of the preparations of mercury taken to such an extent as the occasion may require. The intestinal fever induced by such disorder having been allayed, the tone of the stomach must be invigorated by some of the preparations of cinchona, as quinine, or by quassia, rhubarb, gentian or cascarilla combined either with the alkalies or sulphuric acid, according to the condition of the stomach. Preparations of iron or sulphate of zinc will be found adapted to constitutions thus affected.

Surgical Cure.—Removal of hydatids by surgery can be accomplished when their cysts do not occupy fatal parts. A free cut into the capsule generally effects a removal.


Nature of Infections.—Many, if not all, infectious diseases are due to an impaired equilibrium in the mineral equations of the body. Let too great a loss of some of its normal constituents take place—such as phosphorus, arsenic, iodine, sulphur, etc., without a corresponding income of these elements in the food, and the tissues lose their vital resistance and are liable to become a prey to microbic diseases.

What Small-Pox Is.—Small-pox is a contagious fever, characterized by a pustular eruption having a depressed centre. The period of incubation (development) is about fourteen days.

Symptoms.—Its invasion is announced by chills followed by fever, pain in the back, nausea and vomiting. The eruption commences about the third day of the fever. First appears on the face, neck and wrists. With the appearance of the eruption there is more or less sore throat. The disease is always attended by a peculiar odor. In about eight or ten days the scales drop off, leaving either an indelible cicatrix (scar) or a purplish red mark, which fades very slowly.

Complications.—When patients recover from severe attacks, blindness from inflammation of the conjunctiva is sometimes the result. Besides inflammation of the eyes, glandular swellings and abscesses, bed sores, etc., are occasional complications. It is also sometimes complicated with a diseased condition of the blood.

Epidemic Form.—Like many other contagious diseases, it is subject to epidemic influences, and when it prevails epidemically it seems to be severer and more fatal.


Vaccination.—If exposed to a case of small-pox or where contagion exists: Vaccination first prevention. If not successful first time, try second. If it does not take consider yourself immune—that is, no danger from exposure to contagion.

Other Precautions.—In visiting case or locality where same exists, use tobacco freely, smoking, or keep mouth closed and breathe through nostrils. Before returning home change clothing and expose the clothing worn to fumes of burning sulphur for three or four hours. Then hang in open air all day. Sponge body with mixture of equal parts of alcohol and water.

Treatment.—The modern treatment of infectious diseases, and which appears to be the most successful, is elimination (driving out or off). The main reliance is upon the intestinal tract, and the best agent is a saline (salty) remedy. It acts by causing a gentle stimulation without irritation. Mild cases require little except attention to hygienic measures.

Corrosive Sublimate Bath.—In severer cases the corrosive sublimate bath is the most approved treatment pursued. The method is as follows:

A six-foot bath tub is placed beside the patient's bedside, filled with a fairly warm, 103° F., solution of the bichloride 1 : 10,000, and the patient placed therein, head and shoulders above the solution, remaining in the bath about, ten minutes. These baths are given night and morning.

Rx.---Hydrg., c. c.............. v tablets
Rx.---Corrosive sublimate....... 5 tablets
Mft. Strength each tablet, 1-10,000. Use two or three tablets for bath. Strength each tablet, 1-10,000. Use two or three tablets for bath.

Effects of the Bath.—By this means the pustulation and pitting are lessened, only the merest trace of the odor of the disease is observable, and the duration of the disease is shortened. After removal from the bath the patient feels much relief, but shortly after complains of a drying sensation or burning, which is obviated by anointing the patient with a mixture of carbolic acid, bismuth and olive oil.

Accessory Treatment.—The disease is attended with little danger. When it is severe attention should be early directed to supporting the strength of the patient. The diet should be as nutritious as he can bear, and, when indicated by the pulse, wine and stimulants should be freely administered. The troublesome itching, which causes great suffering, may be alleviated by the application of sweet oil, cold cream or lard; opiates may prove useful to procure sleep, and the bowels should be occasionally moved by a saline purge.

Rx.---Liq. ammon. acet ......... (oz)ss
      Sps. nit. dulc ........... (dr)ij
      Tr. aconit root .......... gtt. xxv
Elix simplex qs. to make ....... (oz)ij
      Liquor acetate of ammonia .. 1/2 ounce
      Sweet spirits nitre ...... 2 drachms
      Tincture aconite root .... 25 drops
      Simple elixir sufficient to make .. 2 ounces
Mft. A teaspoonful every two hours. Take a teaspoonful every two hours.

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Last Modified: Monday, 13-May-2013 15:31:47 EDT